Upgrade to remove ads
Terms in this set (81)
leaf shaped cartilage which closes the airways during swallowing
The vocal chords and their opening. It produces speech and acts as protection from foreign bodies by closing the sphincter
Tube below the glottis which connects to the two primary bronchi. It has C shaped hyaline-cartilage, allowing for the esophagus to stretch during swallowing
The area of the conducting airways where the cili move foreign object to be exporated or swallowed
The place where the trachea bifurcates into the two primary bronchi
The place where the primary bronchi enter the lungs. Here the visceral and parietal plura is also continuous
The sac in which the lungs are encapsulated
Thoratic wall, mediastenum, diaphram
To where does the pleura adhere
Cartilage, Smooth muscle, Elastic fibers
The walls of the conducting airways gradually changes from being covered in
___________, to being composed of _____________ and ______________________ in the bronchioles
In the terminal bronchioles the transport of air changes from _______ to ________
Each terminal bronchiole supplies a _____________
sacs with thin walls and high surface ares (70m^2) to facilitate gas exchange
a substance secreted by alveoli that decreases surface tension in the fluid that coats the alveoli
the type of alveolar cell which produces and secrets surfactant. It is also the type of alveola that can regenerate
Alveolar type which makes up 95% of surface area.
Which cells are found in the interstitium of the lung tissue and help remove foreign substances
The lungs are supplied by two circulations: The _________ circulation and the _______ circulation
Thromboemboli, Angiotensin I to II (by ACE), blood reservoir, left heart
Secondary to gas exchange, the pulmonary circulation removes ___________, converts ____________ and acts as a ________
for the ___________
systemic circulation, delivers blood to and from the conducting airway. It also warms and humidifies inspired air.
vena cava, pulmonary veins (diluting oxyginated blood)
Brochial veins empty
both into the _________ and the _________
The two types of ventilation are _________ and ________
The type of ventilation which covers the gas exchange. It is dictated by the partial pressure gradient of gasses
The movement of air between the atmosphere and the lungs through the conductive airways. It is determined by pressure differences between these two compartments which is controlled by changing the volume of the lungs
Diaphragm, intercostal muscles
Lung volume is increased by contraction of
the ______ and the __________ , which reduces alveolar pressure, thus facilitating flow of air
to the lung
This space has a negative pressure of -4 mmHg compared to the atmosphere thereby preventing the lungs from collapsing during inspiration.
State the two layers of the pleura
the ability of lung tissue to change volume with changes in pressure. It is dictated by the elastic properties of the tissue and the surface tension of the alveoli
Proportion of elastic and collagen fibers
What is the elasticity of the lung tissue dependent upon?
According to the law of Laplace, _________
in a sphere is proportional to the surface tension divided by _________ - thus lower surface tension is
needed in smaller alveolar sacs to maintain common pressure.
stimulation of the parasympathetic nervous system causes _____ and ____
Effect of sympathetic nerves on lungs
What causes respiratory sounds in the conducting airways?
At which week of gestation does surfactant start to be produced, in turn causing infant respiratory stress syndrome in premature infants.
Injury and inflammation
What can lead to respiratory stress symptoms in adults?
instrument used to measure breathing (lung volume)
Forced Vital Capacity (FVC)
The volume of air expired during a forced maximal expiration after a forced maximal inspiration.
Total lung volume minus the residual volume
How much of the lung capacity does the FVC account for
Forced Expiratory Volume (FEV1)
amount of gas expelled during the first second of FVC
When are lungs considered obstructive
what is characteristic of restrictive lungs, in terms of FEV1 and FVC
the movement of blood through the pulmonary capillaries
the movement of gas from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration. This is the driving force of gas exchange in the lungs
the movement of air into the alveoli
Perfusion decreases there as well and instead increases elsewhere
What happens if ventilation is reduced locally
Embolus, Alveolus collapse
What can lead to mismatch in ventilation and perfusion
Blocks capillary bed without changing ventilation- this leaves a physiological dead-space of air in the affected alveoli, where gas exchange no longer is possible
How does an embolus cause a mismatch in ventilation and perfusion
This causes obstruction of air into that alveoli while maintaining proper perfusion. This leads to a shunt, allowing dexoygenated blood to enter left heart as it does not get oxygenated in the lung.
How does a collapsed alveoli cause mismatch in ventilation and perfusion
decreased surface area, thickened alveolar wall, change in partial pressure gradient
how can diffusion of gasses be reduced in the lung
what percent of oxygen is bound to hemoglobin during transport
Hemoglobin affinity for oxygen _____ with the number of bound oxygen molecules, as well as the partial pressure of oxygen in the blood.
increased, decreased, decreased
The affinity is increased by _____ pH, ___
temperature and _____ carbondioxide concentration
a shift to the ____ of the O-Hemo dissociation curve is related to decreased affinity, increased temperature, increased CO2, and decreased pH
a shift to the _____ of the O-Hemo dissociation curve is related to increased affinity, decreased temperature, decreased CO2, and increased pH
oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve
describes the relationship between hemoglobin-
bound oxygen and blood PO2.
The O-Hemo curve is s-shaped with a high PO2 resulting in _____ hemoglobin affinity
the release of oxygen to the plasma to meet tissue demands
what does the lower left part of the O-Hemo dissociation curve represent
the binding of oxygen to hemoglobin in the lungs
what does the upper right part of the O-Hemo dissociation curve represent
75 (15 mL/dL blood)
under normal conditions, what percent saturation is the hemoglobin that returns to the vena cava
the oxygen content will be lower even though hemoglobin saturation is normal (due to less red blood cells)
what is a big difference in the O-Hemo dissociation curve for people with anemia
10% dissolved, 30% hemoblobin bound, 60% as bicarbonate
describe the methods and percentages for CO2 transport
CO2 binds with H2O to form H2CO3 which is converted to H+ and HCO3-(bicarbonate) by carbonic anhydrase. (H+ binds to hemoglobin, and bicarbonate dissolves into plasma in exchange for a Cl-)
how is CO2 converted to bicarbonate
what is the name of the receptors that aid in regulating breathing based on pH in the CSF
what is the effect of the chemoreceptors recognising an increase in CO2
Receptors in the carotid arteries and the aorta that monitor blood pH to help regulate ventilation rate. They are most reactive to PO2, but dont activate until PO2 is below 60 mmHg
receptors located in the sooth muscle of the conducting air ways. They inhibit inspiration and promote expiration when the lungs are inflated
nerve endings amid the epithelial cells of the airway
Respond to smoke, dust, pollen, chemical fumes, cold air, and excess mucus
Trigger protective reflexes such as bronchoconstriction, shallower breathing, breath-holding (apnea), or coughing
Perceived shortness of breath. It can be a result of primary lung diseases such as pneumonia,
asthma and emphysema, or heart diseases where pulmonary congestion leads to lung edema.
laboured breath, air hunger, chest tightness
what perceptions does dyspnea cover over
Increasing renal bicarbonate retention
what does the kidney do to increase pH under acidosis
what healthy range should the blood pH be within
the central chemoreceptors stimulate an increase in ventilation to expel CO2 from the circulation.
How do the lungs correspond to increased PCO2
describes individuals having a genetic predisposition to developing hypersensitivities
extrinsic (atopic), intrinsic (non-atopic)
what are the two types of etiology for asthma
provoked by exposure to specific allergen which induces an allergic response. The disease typically develops during childhood or adolescence and is genetically determined
can be provoked by respiratory tract infections, exercise, hyperventilation, cold air, drugs/chemicals (aspirin and other NSAIDs), hormonal changes, emotional upset, airborne pollutants, and GE-reflux
which antibody does the extrinsic asthma arise from
antigen binds to a sensitivised mast cell, which releases histamine (inducing bronchoconstriction and vasodilation by parasympathetic stimulation) and other cytokines. In addition, there is also an increase in mucus production
What happens during the early phase response of athma
recruited immune cells infiltrate epithelial tissue to induce inflammation, which further constrict the conducting airways from edema.
what happens during the late phase response of asthma
resistance, residual, VC
Both asthma responses lead to an increased airway
________, which makes is harder to expire, so the ______ volume increases at the cost of ______ and
Acute asthma is reversible, but because of inflammatory response leading to epithelial injury, chronic inflammation can impair the reversibility
Is asthma reversible?
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
Respiratory System Physiology
Respiratory System Practice
Chapter 17: Respiratory System
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
Celle vævs biologi