National Operating Committee on Standards for Athletic Equipment
Recertify/recondition helmets every_____ years
NOCSAE establishes minimum requirements for:
Football Helmets and Face Masks
Baseball and Softball Helmets
Lacrosse Helmets and Facemasks
Who certifies Ice Hockey helmets?
Canadian Standards Association (CSA)
a pad system of different angles that transfers forces from tackling throughout the body, not just shoulder
allows for more shoulder motion.
3 stages of healing
Stage I - Inflammatory Response Phase
Stage II - Fibroblastic Repair Phase
Stage III - Maturation-Remodeling Phase
Inflammatory Response Phase
Acute Injury Phase
5 Cardinal Signs of Inflammation Occur
This stage will last for 2 to 4 days.
Chemicals (histamine & heparin) are released to facilitate healing - these are anticoagulants
Cardinal Signs of Inflammation
Loss of Function
Fibroblastic Repair Phase
healing phase (sub-acute phase)
Scar formation and tissue repair occur during this time
Fibroplasia (scar formation) begins within the first few hours after injury and lasts up to 4 to 6 weeks.
Chronic Injury Phase
Remodeling phase of tissue
Scar formation is good and strong at 3-weeks, can last up to several years
Scars are made of covalent bonds
What forces cause fractures?
tension, compression, bending, torsion, or shearing
(incomplete) = kids
(multiple fractures) = surgery
(R < to shaft) = direct blow
(vertical split) = landing from hieght
(s-shaped) = twisting
= axial compress, bend, torsion
a forcible tearing or surgical separation of one body part from another
Stretching or tearing of a ligament
Caused by tension, torsion, or shearing
Problem with G1/G2 sprains?
Hyperstretching, pulling, or tearing of a muscle or tendon
Typically due to a tension force
Caused by compression or blunt trauma
painful, involuntary muscle contractions
splinting; muscles contract due to joint injuries to help protect
usually occurs from overexertion; AOMS (Acute Onset Muscle Soreness) - muscle fatigue; DOMS (Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness) - pain perceived following an exercise
inflammation of sheath
friction at bursae
degeneration of articular/hyaline cartilage
assessment of potentially life threatening problems
more detailed evaluation of athlete
squeeze area of bone superior to injury, pain may mean fracture
Tap on bone inferior to injury
apply tuning fork above or below injury
stressing a ligament to test the dexterity of the ligament. You WILL find an endpoint if ligament still in tact
sign of unstable joint
Manual Muscle Tests
compare bilateral strength of muscles (reported 5/5, 4/5, etc.)
Gate Control Theory
states that by applying electrical stimulation to nerves with the sensory information they receive, they become overloaded and they close the "gate" on the pain sensation
states that pain modulation can be achieved by applying electrical stimulation to acupressure points
theory states that after extended use of electrical stimulation, the body will release endorphins and enkephalins to relieve pain
The study of how the body handles a drug
Dispensing Over-the-Counter (OTC) drugs
at the college level, it is typically alright to administer OTC's as long as they are being used of intended purpose
In high schools, it is illegal to dispense OTC's
Drugs to Combat Infection
Local Antiseptics and Disinfectants
Drugs that Inhibit Pain and Inflammation
Counterirritants and Local Anesthetics
Nonnarcotic Analgesics and Antipyretics
Nonsteroidal Antiinflammatory Drugs
Non-steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs
Used for reducing pain, stiffness, swelling, redness, and fever.
Multitude of uses: infection, acute injury, chronic injury, illnesses, skin conditions.
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