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National Operating Committee on Standards for Athletic Equipment

Recertify/recondition helmets every_____ years


NOCSAE establishes minimum requirements for:

Football Helmets and Face Masks
Baseball and Softball Helmets
Lacrosse Helmets and Facemasks

Who certifies Ice Hockey helmets?

Canadian Standards Association (CSA)


a pad system of different angles that transfers forces from tackling throughout the body, not just shoulder


allows for more shoulder motion.

3 stages of healing

Stage I - Inflammatory Response Phase
Stage II - Fibroblastic Repair Phase
Stage III - Maturation-Remodeling Phase

Inflammatory Response Phase

Acute Injury Phase
5 Cardinal Signs of Inflammation Occur
This stage will last for 2 to 4 days.
Chemicals (histamine & heparin) are released to facilitate healing - these are anticoagulants

Cardinal Signs of Inflammation

Loss of Function

Fibroblastic Repair Phase

healing phase (sub-acute phase)
Scar formation and tissue repair occur during this time
Fibroplasia (scar formation) begins within the first few hours after injury and lasts up to 4 to 6 weeks.

Maturation Phase

Chronic Injury Phase
Remodeling phase of tissue
Scar formation is good and strong at 3-weeks, can last up to several years
Scars are made of covalent bonds



What forces cause fractures?

tension, compression, bending, torsion, or shearing


(incomplete) = kids


(multiple fractures) = surgery


(R < to shaft) = direct blow


(vertical split) = landing from hieght


(s-shaped) = twisting


= axial compress, bend, torsion


a forcible tearing or surgical separation of one body part from another


Stretching or tearing of a ligament
Caused by tension, torsion, or shearing

Problem with G1/G2 sprains?

joint stability


Hyperstretching, pulling, or tearing of a muscle or tendon
Typically due to a tension force


A bruise
Caused by compression or blunt trauma

Myositis Ossificans:

repeated blows

Muscle Cramps:

painful, involuntary muscle contractions

Muscle Guarding

splinting; muscles contract due to joint injuries to help protect

Muscle Soreness

usually occurs from overexertion; AOMS (Acute Onset Muscle Soreness) - muscle fatigue; DOMS (Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness) - pain perceived following an exercise


tendon inflammation


inflammation of sheath


friction at bursae


degeneration of articular/hyaline cartilage

Primary Evaluation

assessment of potentially life threatening problems

Secondary Evaluation

more detailed evaluation of athlete

Compression/Squeeze Test

squeeze area of bone superior to injury, pain may mean fracture

Bump/Tap Test

Tap on bone inferior to injury

Tuning Fork

apply tuning fork above or below injury

Stress Tests

stressing a ligament to test the dexterity of the ligament. You WILL find an endpoint if ligament still in tact


sign of unstable joint

Manual Muscle Tests

compare bilateral strength of muscles (reported 5/5, 4/5, etc.)

Gate Control Theory

states that by applying electrical stimulation to nerves with the sensory information they receive, they become overloaded and they close the "gate" on the pain sensation

Central Biasing

states that pain modulation can be achieved by applying electrical stimulation to acupressure points

Endogenous Opiates

theory states that after extended use of electrical stimulation, the body will release endorphins and enkephalins to relieve pain


The study of how the body handles a drug

Dispensing Over-the-Counter (OTC) drugs

at the college level, it is typically alright to administer OTC's as long as they are being used of intended purpose
In high schools, it is illegal to dispense OTC's

Drugs to Combat Infection

Antifungal Agents
Local Antiseptics and Disinfectants

Drugs that Inhibit Pain and Inflammation

Counterirritants and Local Anesthetics
Narcotic Analgesics
Nonnarcotic Analgesics and Antipyretics
Nonsteroidal Antiinflammatory Drugs

Non-steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs

Used for reducing pain, stiffness, swelling, redness, and fever.


Multitude of uses: infection, acute injury, chronic injury, illnesses, skin conditions.

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