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NOCSAE establishes minimum requirements for:
Football Helmets and Face Masks
Baseball and Softball Helmets
Lacrosse Helmets and Facemasks
a pad system of different angles that transfers forces from tackling throughout the body, not just shoulder
3 stages of healing
Stage I - Inflammatory Response Phase
Stage II - Fibroblastic Repair Phase
Stage III - Maturation-Remodeling Phase
Inflammatory Response Phase
Acute Injury Phase
5 Cardinal Signs of Inflammation Occur
This stage will last for 2 to 4 days.
Chemicals (histamine & heparin) are released to facilitate healing - these are anticoagulants
Fibroblastic Repair Phase
healing phase (sub-acute phase)
Scar formation and tissue repair occur during this time
Fibroplasia (scar formation) begins within the first few hours after injury and lasts up to 4 to 6 weeks.
Chronic Injury Phase
Remodeling phase of tissue
Scar formation is good and strong at 3-weeks, can last up to several years
Scars are made of covalent bonds
usually occurs from overexertion; AOMS (Acute Onset Muscle Soreness) - muscle fatigue; DOMS (Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness) - pain perceived following an exercise
stressing a ligament to test the dexterity of the ligament. You WILL find an endpoint if ligament still in tact
Gate Control Theory
states that by applying electrical stimulation to nerves with the sensory information they receive, they become overloaded and they close the "gate" on the pain sensation
states that pain modulation can be achieved by applying electrical stimulation to acupressure points
theory states that after extended use of electrical stimulation, the body will release endorphins and enkephalins to relieve pain
Dispensing Over-the-Counter (OTC) drugs
at the college level, it is typically alright to administer OTC's as long as they are being used of intended purpose
In high schools, it is illegal to dispense OTC's
Drugs that Inhibit Pain and Inflammation
Counterirritants and Local Anesthetics
Nonnarcotic Analgesics and Antipyretics
Nonsteroidal Antiinflammatory Drugs
Non-steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs
Used for reducing pain, stiffness, swelling, redness, and fever.
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