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Who founded Stoicism?
Zeno-(founded a school in Athens, took his own life)
Who was the second founder?
He systematized the doctrines of Stoicism
Some Famous Stoics
What race are they all?
1.Cicero-Roman statesman, orator/writer, and philosopher-was executed by Octavian Augustus
2.Seneca philosopher, statesman, and writer/orator; tutored young Nero-committed suicide in obedience to the emperor
3.Marcus Aurelius Roman Emperor, philosopher and writer
What is god?
God is fire, reason, the logos- primal source which is immanent in the universe
creates, orders, and governs the universe.
what will god for sure do?
formed the world and will take it back in a universal conflagration, which will be the source of the re-creation of the universe (reality is an unending series of world-constructions and world-deconstructions.
what orders all things for the best?
What controls human destiny?
what is Fate?
God's Reason, god's will
What is the end purpose of life?
what does it consist of?
life according to NATURE, that is the conformity of the human will with the divine will, the agreement of human action with nature.
voluntary assent and submission to the unchangeable laws of nature/reason-acceptance of fate
4 virtues of Stoicism
Stoicism understood Virtue as what?
Virtue is one and indivisible
Either a person was virtuous and embodied all the virtues, or a person was not virtuous at all.
life in accordance with REASON, which nature has given to humans.
Emotions, affections, and passions are what?
irrational and therefore unnatural
Key passions to eliminate
What was the moral life viewed as?
an effort to develop the virtue of apatheia or apathy so that one could be reasonable, live according to nature, accept FATE, and thereby obtain true freedom.
Stoicism emphasized what?
the moral life is above all interior attitude of conscious and voluntary assent to the laws of nature.
Stoic ethics stressed what?
every person has the power to live a moral life, be virtuous, avoid evil, if they only had the will to do so.
What did Stoicism condemn?
what did it encourage?
the development of religious piety, recognition of Divine Providence, patriotism, marriage, family life, and brotherhood among people.
Stoicism is the source of what?
"natural law" thinking
What is common to all humans, as a universal and unchangeable law in every human soul?
Every human being is capable of what?
living a moral life because, through reason they can all know the right and wrong
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