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Even with great talents many people fail to achieve great things. A good part of the reason lies with unwillingness to work hard enough to achieve high performance.

refers to forces within an individual that account for the level, direction, and persistence of effort expended at work.


theories profile different needs that may motivate individual behavior.


theories examine the thought processes that motivate individual behavior.


theory offers a pyramid of physiological, safety, social, esteem, and self- actualization needs.

Maslow's hierarchy of needs



needs in Maslow's hierarchy are esteem and self-actualization.


needs in Maslow's hierarchy are physiological, safety, and social.


theory identifies existence, relatedness, and growth needs.

Alderfer's ERG

needs are desires for physiological and material well- being.


needs are desires for satisfying


are desires for continued personal growth and development.

Growth and development

( nAch) is the desire to do better, solve problems, or master complex tasks.

Need for achievement

(nAff) is the desire for friendly and warm relations with others

Need for affiliation

(nPower) is the desire to control others and influence their behavior.

Need for power

two-factor theory identifies job context as the source of job dissatisfaction and job content as the source of job satisfaction.


factors in the job context are sources of job dissatisfaction.


Organizational policies
Quality of supervision
Working conditions
Base wage or salary
Relationships with peers
Relationships with subordinates
Status Security

Hygiene Factors

Work itself Responsibility

Motivator factors

in the job content are sources of job satisfaction.

Motivator factors

theory posits that people will act to eliminate any felt inequity in the rewards received for their work in comparison with others.

Adams's equity

is an issue of how fair and equitable people view workplace practices.

Organizational justice

3 Dimensions of Organizational Justice

Procedural justice
Distributive justice
Interactional justice

is the degree to which rules are always properly followed to implement policies.

Procedural justice

is the degree to which all people are treated the same under a policy.

Distributive justice

is the degree to which the people are treated with dignity and respect in decisions affecting them.

Interactional justice

theory argues that work motivation is determined by individual beliefs regarding effort/ performance relationships and work outcomes.

Vroom's expectancy

is the probability that work effort will be followed by performance accomplishment.


is the probability that performance will lead to various work outcomes.


is the value to the individual of various work outcomes.


are most likely to lead to higher performance when people have the abilities and the feelings of self- efficacy required to accomplish them.


s, or MBO is a process of joint goal setting between a supervisor and a subordinate.

Management by objective

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