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BIO 1408 Final Exam Review
Terms in this set (50)
Thinking about life's organizational hierarchy in a biological system, which of the following is the correct sequence from the smallest unit to the largest unit?
A. molecule - atom - organelle - tissue - cell
B. cell - organelle - atom - tissue - molecule
C. organelle - molecule - atom - tissue - cell
***D. atom - molecule - organelle - cell - tissue
E. atom - organelle - molecule - cell - tissue
To be considered living, an organism must minimally consist of
A. atoms and molecules.
B. DNA and proteins.
***C. one or more cells.
D. DNA and RNA.
E. RNA and proteins.
Which of the following is not true about a hypothesis?
A. It can be proven to be false.
B. Previous knowledge can help support it.
***C. It can be proven to be true.
D. It is a tentative explanation.
E. It must be testable to be useful.
In an experimental procedure, the researcher has established multiple levels of a chemical, or amounts of light, or some other factor at the beginning of the experiment, in order to determine if and how much the biological system responds. The manipulated factor at varying levels is the
A. Both control group and standardized variable are correct.
B. control group.
***C. independent variable.
D. standardized variable.
E. dependent variable.
Given this information from one element in the periodic table of elements, the number of neutrons and protons in Nitrogen is
A. 7, which is also the atomic mass.
B. unable to be determined with the information provided.
***C. 14, which is also the atomic mass.
D. 14, which is also the atomic number.
E. 7, which is also the atomic number.
In a covalent bond, atoms
A. both become highly electronegative.
B. share protons.
***C. share electrons.
D. of opposite charges attract each other.
E. lose electrons.
The four major groups of organic compounds are
A. carbohydrates, proteins, amino acids, and nucleic acids.
B. fats, waxes, carbohydrates, and amino acids.
C. carbohydrates, lipids, steroids, and monosaccharides.
***D. carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids.
E. lipids, fats, waxes, and steroids.
In living cells, a process by which cells break polymers down into monomers with the addition of water is
B. dehydration synthesis.
D. All of the answer choices are correct.
The primary building block (monomer) of proteins is
***A. an amino acid.
B. a nucleotide.
C. a fatty acid.
D. a glucose molecule.
E. a group of four interconnected rings.
The primary building block (monomer) of nucleic acids is
A. a group of four interconnected rings.
***B. a nucleotide.
C. an amino acid.
D. a glucose molecule.
E. a fatty acid.
Microscope rulers measure microorganisms in micrometers (μm). How many micrometers fit in a meter?
An organelle found in plant cells and some members of the kingdom Protista but not in animal cells is a
C. Golgi apparatus.
D. rough endoplasmic reticulum.
The most prominent organelle visible in most eukaryotic cells is the
A. cell membrane.
B. endoplasmic reticulum.
An example (or examples) of potential energy is/are
A. light and chemical bonds.
B. concentration gradients.
C. chemical bonds.
***D. chemical bonds and concentration gradients.
The breakdown of glucose to carbon dioxide and water is an
A. exergonic reaction in photosynthesis.
B. endergonic or exergonic reaction, depending on the step.
C. endergonic reaction in photosynthesis.
***D. exergonic reaction in cellular respiration.
E. endergonic reaction in cellular respiration.
An enzyme is
A. always a protein.
B. not necessary to sustain life in a cell.
C. All of the answer choices are correct.
***D. an organic molecule that catalyzes a cellular reaction.
E. used up in a reaction.
Enzymes speed chemical reactions by
A. supplying energy to the reaction process.
***B. lowering the energy required to start a chemical reaction.
C. lowering the amount of reactants that are needed.
D. maintaining chemical equilibrium.
E. raising the temperature of the surroundings.
A. moves molecules against a concentration gradient.
B. cannot occur without a membrane present.
C. requires energy.
D. utilizes proteins to move molecules across a membrane.
***E. does not require energy.
The energy source that powers the process of photosynthesis is
D. carbon dioxide.
A. a chemical process not dependent on chlorophyll.
B. not an oxidation-reduction reaction.
C. a set of reactions that produces water and carbon dioxide.
***D. an energy transfer process that produces glucose and oxygen.
E. None of the answer choices is correct.
The reactions of photosynthesis may be summarized as
A. 6CO + 6H2O → C6H12O6 + 6O2
B. 12CO2 + 6H2O → C12H12O6 + 6H2O
C. 6CO + 6H2O → C6H12O6 + 6H2O
***D. 6CO2 + 6H2O → C6H12O6 + 6O2
The primary pigment molecule needed for photosynthesis is
B. chlorophyll b.
D. carbon dioxide
***E. chlorophyll a
Organisms that make their own organic compounds from inorganic substances are called
Photosystem I and photosystem II are, respectively, part of
A. the carbon reactions only.
B. the carbon reaction and the light reactions.
D. the light reactions and the carbon reactions.
***E. the light reactions only.
Thinking about the processes of photosynthesis and cellular respiration in plants, plants are net
A. glucose and O2 consumers.
B. O2 and CO2 producers.
C. O2 and CO2 consumers.
D. glucose consumers and CO2 producers.
***E. O2 producers and CO2 consumers.
The chemical formula for glucose is
During glycolysis molecules of glucose are
***A. broken down by enzymes to form two molecules of pyruvate.
B. bonded by enzymes to form three molecules of pyruvate.
C. broken down into three molecules of pyruvate.
D. broken down in oxidation, and releasing carbon atoms as CO2.
E. bonded covalently to form two molecules of pyruvate.
Glycolysis occurs in the
A. cell membrane.
The enzyme that forms a transport channel in the inner membrane of the mitochondria and uses the potential energy of the proton gradient to form ATP is the
A. FADH2 synthase.
B. hydrogen synthase.
C. NADH synthase.
D. ADP synthase.
***E. ATP synthase.
The products of cellular respiration are
A. glucose, water, and ATP.
B. carbon dioxide, glucose, and water.
C. oxygen, ATP, and water.
***D. carbon dioxide, water, and ATP.
E. glucose, carbon dioxide, and ATP.
The compound that enters the Krebs cycle as a reactant is
***B. acetyl CoA.
D. ATP synthase.
The twisted ladder shape of DNA is a result of the covalently bonded building blocks called
C. amino acids.
In DNA, the "rungs" between the two strands of DNA are formed from the
***A. hydrogen bonds between nitrogen base pairs.
B. covalent bonds between nitrogen base pairs.
C. ionic bonds between the phosphate pairs.
D. ionic bonds between the nitrogen base pairs.
E. phosphodiester bonds between the deoxyribose sugars.
The process used by cells to convert the mRNA "message" into a sequence of amino acids is
A. amino acid synthesis.
Which of the following DNA strands is complementary to the DNA sequence 5'-ATCGTACG-3'?
The 5' and 3' designations used in reference to DNA and RNA sequences are assigned to the
A. oxygen atoms contained in the deoxyribose and ribose.
B. hydrogen atoms that form hydrogen bonds between the nucleotides.
C. nitrogen atoms in the nitrogen bases.
D. carbon atoms in the nitrogen base purines and pyrimidines.
***E. carbon atoms of deoxyribose and ribose.
The building blocks of nucleic acids are
A. glycerol molecules.
B. amino acids.
C. None of the answer choices is correct.
E. glucose molecules.
Complementary DNA strands are held together by
A. phosphodiester bonds.
B. ionic bonds.
C. covalent bonds.
D. glycosidic bonds.
***E. hydrogen bonds.
A human heart cell contains _______ chromosomes.
DNA replication is
B. not carried out by enzymes.
C. a one-step process.
D. not carried out in prokaryotic cells.
A part of a chromosome that attaches sister chromatids to each other is the
The process by which a sperm cell combines with an egg cell is
Meiosis is a process used for
A. growth of an organism.
B. repair of damaged cells.
C. asexual reproduction.
D. production of stem cells.
***E. production of gametes.
In a sexual life cycle, a zygote grows to an adult by
B. All of the answer choices are correct.
D. meiosis and fertilization.
If a sperm cell combines with an egg cell, then the result is a _______
***B. diploid cell.
C. duplicated chromosome.
E. haploid cell.
In humans, specialized cells that produce gametes are
***A. germ cells.
B. somatic cells.
C. sperm cells.
D. egg cells.
E. All of the answer choices are correct.
The sex chromosomal combination for a human male is
Chromosomes that look alike and carry the same sequence of genes for the same traits, such as these shown from two parents, are
***A. homologous chromosomes.
B. the X and Y chromosome.
C. found in females only.
D. found in males only.
E. all the autosomes.
Among humans, you can observe that there is variability in shape (size), skin color, and other traits. The variety in a small population results from _________ in either sexual reproduction or meiosis.
A. random fertilization
B. crossing over
C. independent assortment
***D. All of the answer choices are correct.
Alternate forms of the same gene
A. do not exist.
***B. are alleles.
C. do not occur in the same individual.
D. are homologs.
E. are sister chromatids.
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