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APWH Unit 1 Study Guide
Pre-history to early civilizations
Terms in this set (48)
Time before development of writing
When stone tools began to be developed
What are the two basic periods?
Paleolithic Era (Old Stone), Neolithic era (New Stone)
What is the main difference between paleolithic and neolithic?
Transition from food gathering to agriculture
Agriculture allows for?
What is neolithic revolution?
The innovations and changes that led to agriculture which led to the Allowance for development of civilizations
What is a "civilization"?
a complex society that develops because of surplus from agriculture
Where did permanent first start?
Tigris-Euphrates; Nile; Indus; Huang He
What is the significance of the Neolithic Revolution? How did most societies change after the Neolithic Revolution?
It allowed for permanence. Larger growth and agriculture.
How did the development of civilization impact the status of women?
Predecessors to homo sapiens
Why did Homo sapiens make it?
Biologically "superior". Better equipped with hands and double jointed thumbs (something like that), as well as efficient cooling system, and good endurance
How did Homo Sapiens originally gather?
Neolithic Rev. - Where?
Where did Neo. Rev. spread?
India, North Africa, Europe
What did Neo Rev. allow for?
Permanent settlements and more specialization in functions
What happened to population with Neo Rev.?
True or False: Metallurgy did not develop because technology was not advanced enough.
False: Metallurgy did develop!
Where humans first emerge?
Social structure in prehistory
Kinshipped bands based on familial relationships
Labor division in prehistory
Men - hunters; women - gatherers. Though gender roles were not predominant
Agriculture formed based off (communication/Independence)
Changes due to Neolithic Revolution
Increase in reliable food supply
Increase in pop.
Gender differences grow
Distinction between settled and nomads
Characteristics of a civilization
Art and Literature
Long distance trade
Advantages of a civilization
Specialization and higher culture
Greater ability to protect people
Improvement of quality of life
Disadvantages to civilization
Gender and class distinction
Destruction of environment
Increased attacks from wealth seekers
Pollution, disease, and decrease of sanitation
Name river valley civilizations
Tigris and Euphrates => Mesopotamia
Nile => Egypt
Indus => Indus Valley Civ.
Huang He + => Shang China
Alternatives to agriculture
shifting cultivation (slash and burn)
Pastoral Nomads; why?
The area they are in is not fertile enough to sustain long periods of agriculture. Often seen as barbarians
14 mil -> 100 mil (very rapid in any case)
Neolithic Era Characteristics
Refinement of tools and agriculture
Pottery (for endurance of food)
Metallurgy (for tools)
Textile (for clothing...)
Major inventions and their impacts (3)
Plow - efficient
Bronze - tools
Writing - (Sumeria) organization
Characteristics of River Valley Civilizations
Legal Code (notably; Hammurabi)
Money (for trade)
Art/Literature (Notably; Epic of GIlgamesh - Mesopotamia)
Science and math (calendars too)
Social inequality (slaves; POWs)
Trade with Indus and Egypt
Epic of Gilgamesh
Bronze + Chariots
Polytheism and Pharoahs
Belief in afterlife
Bureaucracy + Divine ruler
Writing (not decipherable)
Harappa and Mohejo Daro
Statues of female -> fertility
Shang China Notables
Bronze tools and chariots
Geographic isolation (though some trade with indus)
Meso and South America Notables
Changes of Egypt over time
Invasions by Hyksos which were later expelled; increase in trade; assimilation of Hyskos within Egyptians; less pyramids; horses
Changes of Asia over time
Many invaders (including the HItties); Bablonia, Assyria. Lots of trade. Lots of languages (with different peoples).
Decline of Major civilizations
Egypt fell from attacks that weakened
Hitties fell apart as they stretched and became disunified
Indus disappeared as Aryans took over
Mycenaeans fell after Trojan Wars
Maritime migraters who traded.
(Judaism) Abraham led them on migration to east=Canaan, then to Egypt (where they became slaves). Rose with Moses and returned to Canaan to form Israel.
Herding people of the Causcus that eventually over ran the Indus civilization. Precursor to Hinduism and caste system.
Classical Civilizations Rose
Greek, Romans, China (Zhou -> Han), India (Mauryan and Gupta dynasties)
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