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33 terms

Ch. 6. Motivation and Performance - Organizational Behavior, 11th Edition (Wiley Press)

In our busy multi- tasking world where work, family, and leisure are often intertwined, there's much to consider when trying to build high- performance work settings that also fit well with individual needs and goals.
STUDY
PLAY
accounts for the level and persistence of a person's effort expended at work.
Motivation
Intrinsic rewards are valued outcomes directly through task performance.
received
rewards are valued outcomes given by some other person.
Extrinsic
is that you earn more when you produce more and earn less when you produce less.
performance-contingent pay
pay links an individual's salary or wage increase directly to measures of performance accomplishment.
Merit pay
sharing rewards employees in some proportion to productivity gains.
Gain sharing
sharing rewards employees in some proportion to changes in organizational profits.
Profit sharing
options give the right to purchase shares at a fixed price in the future.
Stock
plans give stock to employees or allow them to purchase stock at special prices.
Employee stock ownership
pay rewards people for acquiring and developing job-relevant skills.
Skill-based pay
(1) identify and set clear and measurable performance goals,
(2) take performance measurements to monitor goal progress,
(3) provide feedback and coaching on performance results, and
(4) use performance assessment for human resource management decisions such as pay, promotions, transfers, terminations, training, and career development.
Four steps in the performance management process.
measures of performance assess achievements in terms of actual work results.
Output measures
Activity measures of performance assess inputs in terms of work efforts.
Activity measures
in performance appraisal orders each person from best to worst.
Ranking
in performance appraisal compares each person with every other.
Paired comparison
distribution in performance appraisal forces a set percentage of persons into pre-determined rating categories.
Forced distribution
in performance appraisal assigns scores to specific performance dimensions.
Graphic rating scales
rating scale links performance ratings to specific and observable job- relevant behaviors.
The behaviorally anchored rating
record actual examples of positive and negative work behaviors and results.
Critical incident diaries
evaluation gathers evaluations from a jobholder's bosses, peers, and subordinates, as well as internal and external customers and self-ratings.
A 360 evaluation
means a performance measure gives consistent results.
Reliability
means a performance measure addresses job- relevant dimensions.
Validity
is the process of specifying job tasks and work arrangements.
Job design
used systematic study of job components to develop practices to increase people's efficiency at work.
Taylor's scientific management
standardizes work to create clearly defined and highly specialized tasks.
Job simplification
increases task variety by combining into one job two or more tasks that were previously assigned to separate workers.
Job enlargement
increases task variety by periodically shifting workers among jobs involving different tasks.
Job rotation
builds high- content jobs that involve planning and evaluating duties normally done by supervisors.
Job enrichment
allows a full- time job to be completed in fewer than the standard five days.
A compressed work week
hours gives individuals some amount of choice in scheduling their daily work hours.
Flexible working hours
one full-time job is split between two or more persons who divide the work according to agreed- upon hours.
job sharing
is when employees agree to work fewer hours to avoid layoffs.
Work sharing
is work done at home or from a remote location using computers and advanced telecommunications.
Telecommuting