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CMW WHAP - Unit 3 - Land Based Empires 2019 CED
Terms in this set (31)
Contributed to the imperial expansion of the Ottoman Empire, Safavid, Mughal and the Russian Empire
situated at trade crossroads between eastern Europe, middle east, and western Asia. Involved in political rivalries with neighboring states in European and the Middle East, including the Safavid Empire
Professionalized military forces and large bureaucracies
Expanded by states with centralized authority but required new ways generate revenue through taxes and tribute
Ottoman system of recruiting military personnel and bureaucratic elites from conquered peoples, most often young Christian boys made up a fierce fighting force called Janissaries
Infantry, originally of slave origin, armed with firearms and constituting the elite of the Ottoman army from the fifteenth century until the corps was abolished in 1826.
Used by the Ottoman Empire to generate revenue for state power and expansion ... name comes from state auctioned (farmed out) taxation rights to the highest bidder who then collected the state taxes and made payments in fixed installments, keeping a part of the tax revenue for his own use
Associated with the Safavid Empire
Shi'as believe that the Imam - their preferred title for the political and religious leader of the Muslim community must belong to the direct lineage of Muhammad through his daughter Fatima and her husband (and Muhammad's cousin), Ali ibn Abi Talib (Imam Ali, the fourth caliph). The Imam is regarded as sinless and infallible and appoints his successor.
Syncretic (a union or attempted fusion of different religions, cultures, or philosophies) belief system in South Asia that combined elements of Islam, including the belief in one god, and Hinduism, though it rejected the caste system
also spelled Mogul, Persian Mughūl ("Mongol"), Muslim dynasty of Turkic-Mongol origin that ruled most of northern India from the early 16th to the mid-18th century. Ruled much of South Asia and generated revenue with zamindar tax collection
Asante, Benin, & Kongo
west African states that grew more powerful and influential as a result of new maritime trade routes involving the exchange of European guns for African slaves and gold
Manchu rulers of China (1644-1911) who used imperial portraits and public performance of Confucian rituals to legitimize their rule
Collection of taxes in hard currency
Used by China's Ming and Qing dynasties to generate revenue for state power and expansion
Land-based European empire ruled by a tsar
Large empire in Mesoamerica that used the religious practice of human sacrifice to legitimize rule
Feudal Japanese military government imposed isolationist trading policies to limit the disruptive cultural and economic effects of European-dominated long-distance trade
Military professionals used by the Tokugawa shogunate to impose centralized rule
Palace of Versailles
Demonstrates European (French) rulers' use of monumental architecture to legitimize and centralize rule
Religious principle used by European monarchs to legitimize their rule. Asserted that kings derived their authority from God and could not therefore be held accountable for their actions by any earthly authority such as a parliament.
knot-record (also called khipu), was a method used by the Incas and other ancient Andean cultures (the Inca) to keep records, communicate information, and faciltate tribute (tax) collection. In the absence of an alphabetic writing system, this simple and highly portable device achieved a surprising degree of precision and flexibility.
Trans-Saharan trade routes
Continued to thrive and connect West African cities such as Timbuktu with North Africa and Europe. Gold, ivory, and salt were a few of the prominent items traded.
Empire of West Africa with rulers that promoted Islam to legitimize their rule
Engaged in a state rivalry and conflict over trade routes with Songhai
Caused a split in Christianity that marked a break with existing Christian traditions. Sparked by Martin Luther posting the 95 Theses with complaints against the practice of selling indulgences and overall corrupt church practices brought on by abuses of power.
Movement in the Roman Catholic Church in response to the Protestant Reformation that led to missionary efforts to spread Christianity. Key components were the meeting of church leaders at Trent (Council of Trent 1545-1563) and the formation of the Society of Jesus (Jesuits) by Ignatius Loyola
An immense mausoleum of white marble, built in Agra between 1631 and 1648 by order of the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan in memory of his favourite wife. The Taj Mahal is the jewel of Muslim art in India and one of the universally admired masterpieces. Demonstrates the Mughal tradition of building elaborate mausolea.
Sun temple of Cuzco
Inca rulers' use of monumental architecture to legitimize their rule
Zamindars (tax collectors)
local aristocratic landlords, they collected taxes from peasants and sent a set quota to the state
a blending of beliefs and practices from different religions into one faith
Turkish-ruled Iranian (Persian) kingdom (1502-1722) established by Ismail Safavi, who declared Iran a Shi'ite state.
slave soldiers, connected to central Asian empires, specifically, the Safavid Empire in which they became an elite military
Muslim empires of the Ottomans, Safavids, and the Mughals that employed cannonry and gunpowder to advance their military causes. Modern historians have added the Russian Empire to this grouping.
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