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PSYCHOLOGY EXAM DEC. 2019
Terms in this set (101)
Pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base.
Psychological perspective that emphasized our tendency to integrate pieces of information into meaningful wholes.
A therapeutic technique that attempts to provide insights into thoughts and actions by exposing and interpreting the underlying unconscious motives and conflicts
A perspective that focuses on the study of conscious experience, the individual's freedom to choose, and the capacity for personal growth
School of thought that focuses on how thinking or behavior changes in different situations or as a result of cultural influences.
School of thought that focuses on the principles of natural selection to study the roots of behavior and mental processes.
Who was the first American psychologist?
A sample that fairly represents a population because each member of the population has an equal chance of being included.
A research project strategy that investigates the degree to which two variables are related to each other.
As the value of one variable increases (or decreases) so does the value of the other variable.
The participants in an experiment who are exposed to the independent variable.
A research technique that compares individuals from different age groups at one time.
A research procedure in which both the data collectors and the research participants do not know the expected outcome of the experiment.
An experimental procedure where the research participants are ignorant (blind) to the purpose or expected outcome of the experiment.
A research technique that follows the same group of individuals over a long period.
A computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score of a distribution.
As the value of one variable increases, the other variable decreases.
There is no relationship whatsoever between the two variables.
The difference between the highest and the lowest scores in a distribution.
The arithmetic average of a distribution.
Endocrine gland that helps regulate the energy level in the body
sympathetic nervous system
The part of the autonomic nervous system that arouses the body to deal with perceived threats.
A neurotransmitter effect that makes it less likely that the receiving neuron will generate an action potential or "fire"
The endpoint of a neuron where neurotransmitters are stored
peripheral nervous system
The sensory and motor nerves that connect the brain and the spinal cord to the rest of the body
A brief electrical charge that travels down the axon of a neuron
The oldest part and central core of the brain, responsible for automatic survival functions.
Computerized Axial Tomography (CT or CAT)
A series of X-ray photographs taken from different angles and combined by computer into a composite representation of a slice through the body
The brain's ability to change, especially during childhood, by reorganizing after damage or experience
Positron Emission Tomography Scan (PET Scan)
A visual display of brain activity
The Brain's Right Hemisphere
Houses the brain's spatial abilities
The Brain's Left Hemisphere
For most people, language functions are in the...
The clear, curved bulge on the front of the eye that bends light rays to begin focusing them
Specialized cells in every sensory system of the body that can turn other different kinds of energy into action potentials (neural impulses) that the brain can process
The brightness of light as determined by height of the wave
Light-sensitive surface at the back of the eyeball
Pass the information from the bipolar cells through their axons
signal detection theory
A theory that predicts how and when we detect the presence of a faint stimulus (signal) amid background stimulation (noise).
The point on the surface of the cochlea which receives the sound vibration from the ossicles
The nerve that carries sound information from the ears to the temporal lobes of the brain
additive coloring mix
When mixing colored lights, each new color ADDS another wavelength
Opponent-Process Theory of Color
A theory of color vision that says color is processed by cones organized in opponent pairs (red-green, yellow-blue, black-white); light that stimulated one half of the pair inhibits the other half
The receptor cells for hearing; they're are located in the cochlea and are responsible for changing sound vibrations into neural impulses
Tympanic Membrane (eardrum)
The tissue barrier that transfers sound vibrations from the air to the tiny bones of the middle ear
Trust vs. Mistrust
In Piaget's theory, infancy (0-1.5): A sense of trust requires a feeling of physical comfort & minimal amount of fear about the future. Infant's basic needs are met by responsive, sensitive caregivers.
concrete operational stage
In Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development (from about age 6 to 11 years of age) during which children gain the mental skills that let them think logically about concrete events.
Initiative vs. Guilt
In Piaget's theory: ages 3-5 Preschool: Children learn to initiate tasks and carry out plans, or they feel guilty about efforts to be independent.
Intimacy vs. Isolation
In Piaget's theory, ages 20s-40s: Young adults struggle to form close relationships and to gain the capacity for intimate love, or they feel socially isolated
ego vs despair
In Piaget's theory, Late Adulthood: When reviewing his life, the older adult feels a sense of satisfaction or failure.
In Piaget's theory, the stage(from about age 2 to age 6 or 7 years of age)during which a child learns to use language
_____________________ studies observable behaviors, rather than mental processes.
Which scientist discovered classical conditioning through his experiment with dogs?
the diminishing of a learned response.
Any stimulus that increases a response.
The belief and feeling that predisposes someone to respond in a particular way to objects, people, and events.
A readiness to perceive oneself favorably.
The tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request.
The loss of self-awareness and self-restraint occurring in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity.
Giving priority to the goals of the group (often the extended family or work group) and defining personal identity accordingly
_________________ has a profound influence on lifestyles.
Societies with higher ______________________ require more rules for maintaining social order.
Giving priority to personal goals over group goals and defining identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group identification
Intelligence that involves sensitivity to sounds, rhythms, tones, and music
The age that corresponds to the difficulty of the questions a child can answer.
Intelligence that involves sensitivity to others' moods, feelings, temperaments, motivations, and their ability to cooperate in order to work as part of a group
Developer of the first test to classify children's abilities using the concept of mental age.
Freud was the first to identify the significance of the...
The reservoir of instinctual and biological urges
Source of conscience that inhibits the socially undesirable impulses of the id
Anal Retention / Anal Expulsion
Theory that mastery or failure of control over bodily functions in childhood affects personality throughout life
A need or desire that energizes and directs behavior toward a goal.
The idea that a physiological need creates a state of tension state (a drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need.
A tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state.
Health, Employment, Property
Examples of Safety Needs (Maslow)
Examines the deep forces and motivations underlying human behavior.
The DNA of the human psyche.
The experience of two or more unrelated events occurring together in a meaningful manner
A reservoir of the experiences of our species
Paranoid Personality Disorder
Characterized by a distrust of others and a constant suspicion that people around you have sinister motives.
Borderline Personality Disorder
Characterized by mood instability and poor self-image
Narcissistic Personality Disorder
Characterized by self-centeredness. They exaggerate their achievements, expecting others to recognize them as being superior.
Avoidant Personality Disorder
Characterized by a pervasive pattern of social inhibition, feelings of inadequacy, and extreme sensitivity to negative evaluation.
Headache, Elevated Chest Pain, Increased Blood Pressure
Physical symptoms of distress
People with __________________ have feelings of terror that strike suddenly and repeatedly with no warning.
Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)
This is excessive, unrealistic worry and tension, even if there's little or nothing to provoke the anxiety.
Feeling helpless, hopeless, and worthless
Symptoms of Depression
According to the DSM-V, you must have the symptoms for depression for a minimum of ___________.
Another name for major depression
Another name for chronic depression
Finding positive meaning in the event
PTSD coping strategies
A person with PTSD specifically has trouble with the amygdala and the _______.
Cognitive Behavior Therapy
Treatments for PTSD
Antisocial Personality Disorder
What is the new name for sociopathy, according to the DSM-V?
Genetics & Environment
Two possible causes of sociopathy
Sociopaths are estimated to be _____ of the population.
Lack of Remorse
Traits of Sociopathy
A person must be at least ____ years of age to be diagnosed with antisocial personality disorder.
multiple personality disorder
Dissociative Identity Disorder is formerly known as...
One or more episodes of inability to recall important personal information, usually of a traumatic nature, that is too extensive to be explained by ordinary forgetfulness.
Sudden, unexpected travel away from home or one's place of work, with inability to recall one's past
Age, Race, & Gender
People with dissociative identity disorder can experience personalities that differ in...
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