Public Speaking Final Auburn 2018

3 communication models
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NoiseAnything that can change the message after the source encodes and sends it.Examples of physical noiseOther sounds, visual barriers, poor volume and projection, distractions in the room, hunger, tiredness, and other bodily limitations.Examples of psychological noisePreoccupation with other thoughts, emotional reaction to the topic, prejudice or ill will towards the speaker, unwillingness to listen, resistance to the message.Interactive model of communicationCommunication theory that views communication as a two-way process that includes feedback and the environment. The sender and receiver are both encoding and decoding messages.2 aspects that are added to the interactive model that aren't in the linear model1. feedback 2. environmentFeedbackThe receiver's response to a message that is sent to the sender.EnvironmentThe context in which the communication process takes place.Environmental elements to consider when encoding and decoding messagesBeliefs, context, history, participants, relationships, physical settings, valuesTransactional model of communicationThe theory that views communication as a constant process in which all parties simultaneously play the roles of sender and receiver. This is useful with face to face conversation.Similarities between conversation and speechAudience-centered attention to feedback goal-driven logic is required stories for effect.Differences between conversation and speechLanguage choices speeches require more organization use of notes no interruptions delivery style physical arrangement.Public speaking myths1. Public speaking is a talent, not a skill 2. Speech is easy, we do it all the time 3. There is no "right way" to deliver a speechPhobiaA persistent irrational fear of a specific object, activity, or situation that leads to a compelling desire to avoid.Communication apprehensionThe fear or anxiety associated with real or anticipated communication with another or others.Self-fulfilling prophecyConvincing yourself that something is going to happen before it does, thus leading to the occurrence of what you originally expected.Physical effects of communication apprehensionRise in blood pressure/face flushing red, shortness of breath, galvanic skin tightening, perspiration.Ways to calm anxiety before a speechPractice, employ relaxation techniques, visualize success, dialogue with the audience, systematic desensitization.Systemic desensitizationThe process whereby a person is slowly introduced to a fear such that each time he or she overcomes the fear the intensity is decreased.EthicsInvolve morals and the specific moral choices to be made by a person.Why are we concerned about ethics?Because once a message is said it cannot be taken back.Personal duties that we all have for balancing ethical responsibilities when choosing a topic1. A duty to ourselves to do the best we possibly can 2. A duty to our families to provide for them by keeping our jobs 3. A duty to the audience and the greater public to seek the common good 4. A duty to our employers to achieve results4 questions to ask to determine if a source is trustworthy/the ethics of research1. Will this person benefit from getting me to believe that this information is true? (biased) 2. Is this person an expert in this area or in a position to know this information? 3. Are the claims made by this source substantiated by other credible sources? 4. Is the source recent enough to be relevant?PlagiarismTaking the intellectual achievements of another person and presenting them as one's own.Global plagiarismTaking an entire piece of work and saying that it is your own.Incremental plagiarismUsing part of someone else's work and not citing it as a source. (only one part)Patchwork plagiarismTaking ideas from more than one piece of work and putting them together into a new piece of work, and then presenting them as original work without giving due credit to the sources. (more than one part)PatchworkingTaking original source material and changing a few words in it, but not enough to consider it into a paraphrase, all the while not citing the original source material.4 pieces of information a verbal citation should include1. the name of the publication 2. the date the source was published 3. the author of the work and/or name of the person who is providing the information used in the source 4. the credentials of the sourceGuidelines to make good choices regarding the language and delivery of your presentationsMaintain composure, describe people with respect, avoid profanity, balance simplicity and complexity, balance emotion and logic.How to be a responsible audience memberKeep an open mind, do not heckle, pay attention.CultureThe distinctive ideas, customs, social behavior, products, or way of life of a particular nation, society, people, or period.Co-cultureGroups that are impacted by a variety of smaller specific cultures that intersect in our lives.6 dimensions Hofstede identified to understand the differences in national cultures1. high vs. low power distance 2. high vs. low uncertainty avoidance 3. individualism vs. collectivism 4. Masculinity vs. femininity 5. long-term vs. short-term 6. indulgence vs. restraintHigh vs. low power distanceCultures with high power distance have high levels of inequality in power distribution in organizations, families, and other institutions; whereas cultures with low power distance have less inequality. (we are low power distance)High vs. low uncertainty avoidanceCultures with high uncertainty avoidance have a low tolerance for ambiguity and minimize the possibility of uncomfortable, unstructured situations by enforcing strict rules, safety measures, and a belief in absolute truth. (we are high uncertainty avoidance)Individualism vs. collectivismIndividualistic societies have loose ties between individuals and expect each person to look out for him/herself and their immediate family. (we are individualism)Masculinity vs. femininityMasculinity and femininity refer to the distribution of emotional roles between the genders and the difference in values of men and women. (We are masculinity)Long-term vs. short-term orientationCultures with long-term orientation are pragmatic and focus on future rewards, with an emphasis on saving, persistence and adaption. Cultures with short-term orientation focus on the present and past and emphasize national pride, tradition, social obligation and saving "face" in the here and now. (We are short term orientation)Indulgence vs. restraintIndulgent cultures freely allow gratification of desires that allow individuals to enjoy life and have fun. Restrained cultures have strict social norms and discourage acting simply out of want. (We are indulgence)Low-context culturesThe language used in an interaction, in which very little emphasis is placed on the nonverbal communication, environment, and situation. Focuses on the words used.High-context culturesLanguage in which a great deal of meaning is derived from the nonverbal expressions, environment and situation in which the communication is taking place, and less emphasis is placed on the words. Focus on how the words are said.RaceA set of physical characteristics shared by a group of people, such as skin color, body type, facial structure, and hair color.EthnicityA group of people who identify with each other based on a common experience which might include geographic or national origin, ancestry, history, cultural and social norms, religion, race, language, ideology, food, dress, or other factors.SexRefers to one's biological classification as male, female, or intersex based on one's reproductive organs and chromosomes.GenderA social construction that includes the all of the beliefs, attitudes, actions, and roles associated with being masculine or feminine.Sexual orientationThe sex and gender to whom a person is romantically and sexually attracted to.The GI generationSometimes referred to as the greatest generation, is the generation that fought during WWII.The silent generationToo young to fight in WWII, but came into adulthood during the rise of the middle class and the relatively prosperous time that followed.The baby boomersThe children of the GI generation, grew up with Woodstock and the Vietnam war, tended to focus on careers and set high expectations for their children.Generation Xgraduated high school in the 80's and 90'sThe millennialsGraduated high school after 2000, tended to be very protected by their parents and had high expectations set for them.Physical diversitySome are permanent while others are temporary some are due to genetics and other are due to an illness or accident. For example: blindness. Some people are born blind while some will become blind after an accident. Others will be temporarily blind after surgery. This is important because not all people with the same impairment are the same and these differences do not define a person.Cognative diversityThere is broad range in IQ, learning styles and preferences, interests, memory, and experience among people.IdeologySet of ideas, beliefs, and ideals that form our worldview and provide a basis for action.Religious diversityThere are numerous faiths practices in the United States. There is also a growth of non-religious and unaffiliated but spiritual people. Understanding these differences is essential for developing a respectful community.5 steps to enhance ability to use communication to understand and respect differences in people.1. Make the message accessible 2. Don't highlight differences in others 3. Avoid "ist" language 4. Create dialogue 5. Avoid ethnocentrismDialogueSpeaking in a way that encourages others to listen and listening in a way that encourages others to speak.EthnocentricBelieving your group's perspective is the only correct one and thus judging others based on their conformity to your way of doing things.General purpose statementA brief statement representing what you aim to do with the speech; there are 3 types.Three types of speechesInformative, persuasive, commemorative3 parts to choosing a topic1. must fit requirements 2. brainstorming 3. making a concept mapBrainstormTo create a list of possible topics and keep adding to this list as you think of new ideas.Concept mapAlso known as a mind map, is a visual representation of the potential areas that you could cover in your speech.Specific purpose statementA narrower version of the general purpose statement that identifies what you will talk about, what you will say about it and what you hope the audience will take away from the speech. "My speech will..." 1. A single declarative statement 2. Not rigid law but evolutionary element 3. indicates general purposeInformative speech specific purpose statementMy speech will inform my audience that the process of hosting a dinner party requires focus on detail that begins with determining when the party will occur, who will be invited, and what will be served.Informative speech thesis statementHosting a dinner party requires a focus on detail that begins with determining when that party will occur, who will be invited, and what will be served.Persuasive speech specific purpose statementMy speech will convince my audience that Tiger Woods is the greatest PGA golfer of all time due to his short, middle, and long game, plus his ability to handle pressure and the sheer number of tournaments he has won.Persuasive speech thesis statementTiger Woods is the greatest PGA golfer of all time due to his short, middle, and long game, plus his ability to handle pressure, and the sheer number of tournaments he has won.Commemorative speech specific purpose statementMy speech will commemorate the occasion of Independence Day, a day when we celebrate the founding of our country, the principles that gave this country birth, and our development as a nation.Commemorative speech thesis statementToday we celebrate Independence Day, a day that marks the founding of our country, celebrates the principles that gave this country birth, and marvels at our development as a nation.The five characteristics of information literacy1. Know why you want certain information for this speech 2. know where to get the information you seek 3. know how to assess the quality of the information you have found 4. create new knowledge 5. be accountable for your use of informationBiasAn unfair preference or distortion of informationThree types of information1. background information 2. Unique information 3. Evidentiary informationBackground informationThe first type of information you encounter when researching a topic with which you are unfamiliar, and finding ti will help you refine your topic and could be useful when explaining the topic to your audience.Unique informationStatistics, quotations, or stories about people or events that are not common knowledge but are nonetheless fascinating. It is valuable in capturing and maintaining the interest of your audience.Evidentiary informationCore of speech and is what you set out looking for when researching a topic. It lends direct support to your thesis and the main points of your speech.Web domains from least credible to most, .org, .com, .edu, .govBoolean operaterUsing words such as "and", "but", and "or" when typing in search terms to focus the results.Ways to keep track of research sources1. Place notes on each piece of information you collect that lists the proper bibliographical citation for that piece of data 2. Keep a notebook in which you log all of your information and where you found it 3. Keep an ongoing bibliography in the document itself.APAAmerican Psychological AssociationDemographicsCategories of definable characteristics of groups of people such as age, race, religion, socioeconomic status, education level, and sexual orientation.Strategies for gaining audience interestMake eye contact, vary tone/pitch/pace, use gestures to make a point, use pauses effectively, refer to someone in the crown, involve your audience.Tendencies that lose audience interestPoor delivery skills, not varying tone/pitch/pace throughout speech, reading your speech, talking about things that are not relevant to your audience.Signals of audience engagementHead nods, smiles, raised eyebrows, clapping/cheering, eye contact.Signals of audience disengagementShifting in seats, talking to neighbors, reading, sleeping, leaving the room, looking at watches or phones.Ways to gather audience informationDirect observation, polling, contact the people, scientific surveys, personal interviews.Real exampleAn example that is factualHypothetical situationAn example that is fictionalBrief exampleAn example that makes a very quick point and can be effective at any point in the speechExtended exampleAn example that takes time; the importance lies in the details.StatisticsNumbers that summarize and organize sets of numbers to make them easier to understand or visualize.Measures of central tendancyStatistics that indicate where the middle of distribution lies, including the mean, median, and mode.MeanThe average of all the scores in a distribution, which is calculated by adding all of the scores and then dividing by the total number of scores.MedianThe middle number in a distribution of numbers.ModeThe score that appears most often in a distribution of numbers.Standard deviationA measure of variability that indicates how spread apart the numbers are in a distribution.TestimonyUsing the words of other people as evidence.Expert testimonyTestimony from someone who has conducted extensive research on the topic, has significant experience with the topic, or holds a position that lends credibility to his or her ideas on the subject matter.Peer testimonyTestimony from someone who is in the same peer group as the audience, but who is not necessarily an expert on the topic.5 guidelines for using supporting materials1. Be sure to have a balance between your types of supporting material 2. only use supporting materials relevant to your topic and argument 3. make sure you stay focused when using examples 4. Choose the type of testimony to use based upon the goal you are trying to achieve 5. Use supporting materials ethically3 principles out outlining1. subordination 2. coordination 3. divisionSubordinationProcess of creating a hierarchy of ideas in which the most general ideas appear first, followed by more specific ideas.CoordinationAll information on the same level has the same significance.DivisionPrinciple that if a point is divided into subpoints, there must be two or more subpoints.Rules for preparation outline1. Each symbol of the outline is followed by a full sentence 2. Only one sentence allowed per symbol 3. Outlines pertain to in-text citations 4. A speech is not written like an essay6 parts to a speech introduction1. Get the audience's attention 2. Clearly state the relevance of the topic 3. Establish credibility 4. State argument 5. Preview main points 6. Transition to bodyThesisA carefully worded one sentence summary of exactly what you will cover in your speech.TransitionConnective statements that signal you are finished with one point and moving on to another.Internal summaryA statement that summarizes what you already have covered and precedes transitions.SignpostsKey words that signal to the audience that you are moving from one part of the speech to another.Internal previewServes as an outline of what is to come next in a speech and is often combined with transition statements.3 parts of conclusion of speech1. Signal conclusion 2. Provide a summary 3. Memorable closerClincherThe final statement of your speech.Deductive reasoningAn argument that reasons from unknown premises to an inevitable conclusion. General to specific.Categorical syllogismA syllogism in which the argument is based on membership in a group.Disjunctive syllogismA syllogism in which the major premise includes two or more mutually exclusive alternatives.Conditional syllogismA syllogism in which the major premise contains a hypothetical condition and its outcome.Inductive reasoningAn argument that comes to a probable, instead of an absolute, conclusion. Specific to general.Forms of reasoningReasoning by cause, reasoning by example, reasoning by analogy, reasoning by sign.Reasoning by causeArguments that claim one event or factor produces an effect.Reasoning by exampleThe process of inferring general conclusions and making general claims from specific cases.Reasoning by analogyWhen you compare two similar cases in order to argue that what is true in one case is also true in the other.Reasoning by signOccurs when the presence of one thing indicates the presence of anotherNecessary causeA cause that must be present for an effect to happen.Sufficient causeA cause that can produce that effect in question.Literal analogyWhen the two cases being compared are classified the same way.Figurative analogyWhen the two cases being compared are from completely different classifications.Ad Hominem FallacyAttacking the persons character instead of his or her argument.Ad Vericundium FallacyStates that positional authority makes someone's argument correct and accurate.The Slippery Slope FallacyRelies on the belief that once a course of action is taken, other unavoidable events will inevitable occur. Once we start down a path there is no turning back.Non Sequitur FallacyMeans "not in sequence" and refers to making an unjustified move from on idea to another. (Assuming someone is rich because they have nice furniture, when they could have inherited it).Straw Man FallacySpeaker distorts the actual position of an opponent. If they find one thing wrong with the argument then they throw out the entire argument, but one thing wrong doesn't mean the entire argument is invalid.Hasty Generalization FallacyDrawing conclusions about broad principles or categories based upon a small sample of evidence. An example of this is watching a movie from one genre and not enjoying it, and therefore thinking all movies in that genre are bad.Either-Or FallacyAssuming there are only two alternatives, when there are more.False Cause FallacyAssumes one event causes another unrelated event to occur.The Red Herring FallacyHappens when the speaker introduces irrelevant ideas to focus attention away from the real issue.Begging the Question FallacyWhen we assume certain facts that have not been proven.4 types of informative speeches1. About objects 2. About processes 3. About events 4. About conceptsOrganizational patterns of informative speechesChronological, cause-effect, problem-solution, spatial, topicalThe persuasive process (stages)Stage 1: Issue awareness Stage 2: Comprehension Stage 3: Acceptance Stage 4: IntegrationIssue AwarenessFirst stage of the persuasion process in which you focus the audience's attention on the issue and show why the issue is important.ComprehensionStage of the persuasion process in which the audience understands the relevant components of the issue and the position that you want them to take.AcceptanceThird step of the persuasion process in which the audience accepts that the issue is relevant to them.IntegrationThe fourth step of the persuasive process in which the audience adopts the position that you want them to take.3 types of credibility1. Initial 2. Derived 3. TerminalCredibilityThe ability of a person to inspire belief or trust in others.Initial credibilityThe credibility that you have with the audience before you begin your speech, based on your experience and the audience's prior knowledge about you.Derived credibilityThe form of credibility that manifests itself during your presentation.Terminal credibilityThe level of credibility that you have when your speech concludes which is the sum of your initial credibility and derived credibility.Types of persuasive speechesQuestions of fact, questions of value, questions of policy, refutation.Question of factWhen a speaker seeks to persuade people about how to interpret facts.Question of valueA persuasive speech about the rightness or wrongness of an idea, action, or issue.Question of policyWhen a speaker takes a position on whether an action should or should not be taken.RefutationResponse to potential opposition to your argument.Persuasive speech organizational patternsProblem-solution, problem-cause-solution, comparative advantages, Monroe's motivated sequence.5 types of commemorative speeches1. Eulogies 2. Toasts 3. Presenting an award 4. Receiving an award 5. Graduation addressesEulogyA speech that pays tribute to the life of the deceased.4 characteristics of commemorative speech1. Language differences 2. Emotional quality 3. The importance of context 4. Less rigid organization3 guidelines for commemorative speeches1. Connect the audience to the event 2. Use descriptive language 3. Consider the expectations of the audienceTypes of traditional aidsModels, charts, graphs, objects, photographsModelsA 3-dimensional representation of an actual object.ChartVisual depiction of summaries of numeric data.GraphA type of chart that illustrates numeric data by using a visual diagram.Line graphA graph that uses line drawn along to axes that show growth, loss, or flat developments over time.Bar graphA graph which shows two axes and bars going either horizontally or vertically to represent total achievement.HistogramA visual representation of a frequency table in which the categories are placed on the horizontal axis and vertical bars are used to represent the number (or frequency) of individuals that fit into the category.Pie graphA graph that shows circles that are "sliced" apart to represent percentages of the total "pie" for particular groups or categories.ObjectThe thing being discussed, not a model or representation of that thing.PhotographA picture of the object about which you are speaking.Examples of technological aidsVideo, audio, slideshow presentations.The dos of of slideshow usagePrepare slides carefully, make sure slides are of the proper size, practice with your slides, ensure slides are visually pleasing, have a backup plan, ensure slides are relevant, refer to slides when discussing them.The don'ts of slideshow usageUse if unnecessary, speak to the aid, look too much at the aid, trust technology, use slides as note cards, use as an outline, depend upon them too much.Guidelines for using presentation aids1. They should help the audience understand complicated evidence, testimony, or arguments 2. The type of presentation aid you use depends on what your topic is and what you want your audience to retain 3. Focus should be on the audience 4. Insert blank slides 5. Practice speech with presentation aids5 language characteristicsArbitrary, ambiguous, abstract, hierarchical, spoken vs. writtenArbitrarySymbols used to represent things that are not intrinsically connected to those things.AmbiguousLanguage that does not have precise, concrete meanings.AbstractWords are not concrete or tangible items; they are only representations.HierarchicalLanguage that is structured according to more or less, higher or lower.Difference in spoken vs. written language1. Spoken language is irreversible, writing something on paper or a computer can be erased or destroyed before sending it. 2. Spoken language is less formal that written language. We do not use shorthand in written language.7 ways to structure language1. Repetition 2. Alliteration 3. Parallelism 4. AntithesisRepetitionRepeating words and phrases. Anytime you repeat a word or phrase it improves the chances that the audience will pay attention and remember what you said.AlliterationRepeating the same consonant or vowel sound at the beginning of subsequent words. Doing this makes the phrase much more appealing to the ear.ParallelismSimilarly structuring related words, phrases, or clauses of speech. It adds a poetic element to language, and makes the message more memorable, and helps the audience pay close attention to the key elements of the message.AntithesisWhen two ideas that sharply contrast with one another are put side by side in a parallel structure. It forces the audience to think about the relationship between the parts of the statement in order to discern what it means.3 types of language devices1. Similes 2. Metaphors 3. NarrativeSimileLinguistic device that compares two things through the use of "like" or "as".MetaphorsLinguistic device that allows for comparisons between two objects by highlighting qualities of each object in explicit comparison.SynecdocheType of metaphor that uses one part of something to represent the whole thing. Ex: "We watched a number of sails pass through the straight". (The sail is used to reference the entire ship)MetonymyType of metaphor that uses a tangible object to represent an otherwise intangible thing. An example is calling work "blood, sweat, and tears".Archetypal MetaphorType of metaphor that uses common human experiences to describe another object. An example is how "light and darkness" is used to describe "good and evil".Mixed MetaphorA type of metaphor that compares two objects that have no logical connection with each other. These are common in everyday language.NarrativeA story.Bookend storyA narrative in which the speaker tells the first part of a story as an attention getter in the introduction of the speech and then finishes the story in the closer at the end of the conclusion.9 guidelines for using language1. avoid profanity 2. avoid hate speech 3. avoid overusing metaphors 4. use vivid language when telling a story 5. use language with which you are familiar 6. use inclusive language 7. use active voice 8. avoid wordiness 9. adapt your language to your audienceProfanitylanguage that is vulgar and irrelevantHate speechAttacking a person or group of people based upon their gender, ethnicity, religion, sexual orientation, social actions, or any other category that indicates applications of a negative, unwarranted stereotype.What is meant by using inclusive language?Use words such as "we" or "us" instead of "I". You should also use language that includes all members of the audience. Use police officer instead of policeman.Active voiceMuch more energetic than the passive voice.4 modes of delivery1. memorized speeches 2. manuscript speeches 3. impromptu speeches 4. extemporaneous speechesMemorized speechWhen a speaker commits an entire speech to memory and delivers with no notes in front of him/her.Manuscript speechWhen a speaker has an entire speech written out word for word in front of him/her as he/she speaks. They are sometimes delivered off a teleprompter. This allows you to plan what you want to say and exactly how long it will take to say it. The downside to this is it's difficult to sound natural.Impromptu speechA presentation done with little or not preparation. It is more likely you'll make eye contact with you're audience because you wont have anything to read off of.Extemporaneous speechA speech delivered with notes but without the entire speech in front of the speaker. This is the most natural sounding because it lacks the pressure of memory or the cadence of a written essay.2 components of deliveryVerbal and physicalVerbal deliveryElements of speaking that deal with voice.8 aspects of verbal delivery1. pronunciation 2. articulation 3. volume 4. pitch 5. rhythm 6. rate 7. tone 8. vocalized pausesPronunciationThe accepted standard of how a word sounds when it's spoken. Mispronounced words can damage credibility.ArticulationPhysically producing the sound needed to convey the word.PitchHow high or low your voice sounds.RhythmPattern of movement of your voice. When giving a speech, be careful to not let your voice fall into an unnatural, repetitive pattern that distracts the audience from your message.RateSpeed at which you speak. Speaking too fast can make it hard for people to follow. Speaking to slow can come across as condescending.ToneHelps to convey emotions and interest.Vocalized pausesOccurs when the speakers feel the need to utter some sort of sound but do not have anything to say. They are also referred to as filler words. A few is fine and natural but too many can hurt credibility.5 aspects of physical delivery1. apparel 2. posture 3. facial expressions 4. eye contact 5.gesturesApparelDress right for each occasion.PostureHow your body is positioned when talking to an audience. Do not lean on the podium, and stand straight and be natural. A slack posture makes you seem uninterested.Facial expressionsYour facial expression should reflect the emotions associated with what you are saying.Eye contactMaintaining eye contact with the audience is essential for establishing a rapport with them, but it is also one of the most stressful aspects for novice speakers.GesturesShould be used to emphasize important ideas and help them illustrate the relationships between ideas.5 functions of verbal delivery1. repeating 2. accenting 3. complementing 4. substituting 5. regulatingRepeatingWhen physical actions restate verbal messages.AccentingNonverbal behaviors that augment a verbal message. (pumping fist in air as a sign of triumph)ComplementingWhen the action demonstrates the message contained in the verbal content. (shrugging your shoulders when you say "I don't know")SubstitutingPhysical actions that take the place of verbal messages. (waving instead of saying hello).RegulatingNonverbal actions that help govern the course of a speech or interaction. (raising hand to indicate you want to talk).Tips for good deliveryPractice your delivery, discover your own speaking rhythm, put delivery cues in your outline.Ways to practice your speechIn the mirror, in front of friends and family, videoing it and then watching.Stages of practice1. organization 2. feedback 3. refining your speechStages of practice-organizationIn the early stages of practice, focus on organization and adjusting the outline of the speech. What you say out loud may not sound as good as when you wrote it, so you may have to adjust some things.Stages of practice-feedbackWork with others to get feedback on your outline and speech.Stages of practice-refining your speechThis takes place close to the time of the actual presentation. This is when you practice giving it without reading your notes.Tips for good practice sessions1. Practice orally 2. Provide questions to the practice audience 3. Practice with a stopwatch 4. Keep it simple 5. Keep the audience in the forefront of your mindBookend group presentationA group presentation in which the first speaker is also the last speaker, providing both the introduction and conclusion for the group. This gives a nice sense of closure and also gives the presentation continuity.Panel group presentationA group presentation in which individual speakers present their ideas on a sing topic or a subset of a topic.ModeratersA person that acts as the coordinator of the discussion flow and ensures a civil, organized, and complete delivery or information to the audience. They should be objective and should not present there own opinions.3 roles people fill in small groupsTask roles, maintenance roles, leadership rolesTask rolesRefers to the parts people play that move a group towards a goal.Examples of group task rolesMeeting facilitator, logistics coordinator, note taker, compilerGroup task roles- meeting facilitatorOrganizes the information and tasks during the meeting, keeps group members on track during meeting, makes sure that everyone gets to contribute during meetings.Group task roles- logistics coordinatorSchedules meeting times and locations, sends out reminder emails.Group task roles- note takerTakes notes during meetings, sends minutes to group after meetings, keeps records that the group can refer to when meeting.Group task roles- CompilerTakes all of the components prepared by individual group members and compiles those components into an initial draft of the group presentation.Maintenance rolesMaintaining functioning relationships between group members is essential. Maintenance of good relationships involves having people who help the group loose and supportive.Leadership roles/stylesEvery group has a leader, the person who keeps the group focused, motivated, and on task. Every leader also needs followers , and those followers need to buy into the vision and plan advocated by the leader.3 things leaders need to do1. Demonstrate competence on the issue or task the group is setting out to accomplish 2. Need to accept responsibility for their actions and those of their group 3. Must satisfy the expectations of the groupAutocratic leadershipA style of leadership in which a leader tells group members what they should do. There is little emphasis on maintenance tasks and relationships between group members.Laissez-faire leadershipA style of leadership in which the leaders provides little direction on the task and makes little effort to develop or maintain relationships between group members.Democratic leadershipA style of leadership in which a leader finds a balance between task and maintenance dimensions in a group.Vital functions approachA leadership approach that calls upon group leaders to perform tasks others in the group either cannot or are not qualified to perform.Leader-as-completer approachA leadership approach in which the leader is the person responsible for completing tasks that are not finished or undertaken by other group members.Characteristics of being a good team member1. The ability to listen to several messages at the same time 2. Ability to identify the skill sets for each member and assign tasks that take advantage of those skills 3. helping facilitate efficient and productive meetingsProductive team member behaviors-listen carefully to others -ask for clarification when needed -make connections between others' ideas -provide constructive feedback -arrive at meeting on time -distribute agendas and meeting minutes -identify and utilize individual strengthsDisruptive team member behavior-attacking others or their ideas -bringing up unrelated topics -arriving late or missing meetings -dominate the conversation during meetings -failing to complete your components of the project -be inflexible and unavailable -speak rudely to othersDaisA table at which people sit in the front of the room.Artistic proofConstructed by the speaker for the occasion; concerns ethos, pathos, and logos.Inartistic proofAll the evidence, data, and documents that exist outside of the speaker and the audience, but nevertheless can aid in persuasion.LecternThe stand behind which people speak and on which they place their notes.LogosThe logical dimension of the appealEthosThe credibility of the speakerPathosThe emotional dimensions of the appeal that can influence an audience's disposition toward the topic, speaker, or occasion.Voice over internet protocolAllows for voice and images to be sent live over the web to another person.

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