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ch 9, motivation and emotion


the process by which activities are started, directed, and continued so that physical or psychological needs or wants are met.

extrinsic motivation

type of motivation in which a person performs an action because it leads to an outcome that is external to the person

intrinsic motivation

type of motivation in which a person performs an action because the act itself is rewarding or satisfying in some internal manner


the biologically determined and innate patterns of behavior that exists in both people and animals

instinct approach

early approach to motivation that assumes people are governed by instincts similar to those of animals.
William McDougal proposed 18 human instincts, however this approach faded because it offered no explanation


a requirement of some material (such as food or water) that is essential for survival of the organism


a psychological tension and physical arousal arising when there is a need that motivates the organism to act in order to fulfill the need and reduce the tension.

drive-reduction theory

approach to motivation that assumes a person acts to reduce drive and satisfy need

primary drive

those drives that involve needs of the body such as hunger and thirst

acquired (secondary) drives

those drives that are learned through experience or conditioning, such as the need for money or social approval


the tendency of the body to maintain a steady state

need for achievement nAch

a need that involves a strong desire to succeed in attainin goal,s not only realistic ones but also challenging ones

need for affiliation nAff

the need for friendly social interactions and relationships with others

need for power nPow

the need to have control or influence over others


the beliefs one holds about one's abillities and relationships to others according to Dweck

locus of control

concept in which people who assume they have control over what happens in their lives and believe intelligence is changeable are considered to be internal, and those who feel their lives are controlled by fate/luck/powerful others and believe intelligence is unchangeable are considered to be external

stimulus motive

motive that appears to be unlearned but causes an increase in stimulation, such as curiosity

arousal theory

theory of motivation in which people are said to have an optimal level of tension that they seek to maintain by increasing or decreasing stimulation

yerkes-dodson law

relationship between performance and arousal where moderate levels of arousal lead to better performace than levels of arousal that are too low or too high

sensation seeker

someone who needs more arousal than the average person


things that attract or lure people into action

incentive approaches

theories of motivation in which behavior is explained as a response to the external stimulus and its rewarding properties

expectancy-value theories

incentive theories that assume the actions of humans cannot be predicted or fully understood without understanding the beliefs, values, and the importance that a person attaches to them at any given moment in time


according to Maslow, the point that is seldom reached at which people have sufficiently satisfied the lower needs and achieved their full human potential

Maslow's hierarchy of needs

physiological needs, safety needs, belongingness and love needs, esteem needs, cognitive needs, aesthetic needs, self-actualization needs, transcendence needs

peak experiences

according to Maslow, times in a person's life during which self-actualization is temporarily achieved

self-determination theory

theory of human motivation in which there are three needs that help people gain a sense of self and healthy relationships with others: autonomy, competence, relatedness


a hormone secreted by the pancreas to control the levels of fats, proteins, and carbohydrates in the body by reducing the level of glucose in the bloodstream.


hormones that are secreted by the pancreas to control the levels of fats, proteins, and carbohydrates in the body by increasing the level of glucose in the bloodstream

ventromedial hypothalamus

area of the hypothalamus that if destroyed leads to overeating; the satiety center

lateral hypothalamus

area of the hypothalamus that if destroyed leads to loss of appetite, under eating; the hunger center

weight set point

the particular level of weight that the body tries to maintain

basal metabolic rate

the rate at which the body burns energy when the organism is resting


hormone that controls appetite which may play an important role in obesity

anorexia nervosa

condition in which a person reduces eating to the point that a weight loss of 15 percent below the ideal body weight or more occurs


condition in which a person develops a cycle of "binging" and "purging"


the "feeling" aspect of consciousness, characterized by a certain physical arousal, a certain behavior that reveals the emotion to the outside world, and an inner awareness of feelings

display rules

learned ways of controlling displays of emotion in social settings

James-Lange theory of emotion

theory in which a physiological reaction leads to the labeling of an emotion

Cannon-Bard theory of emotion

theory in which the physiological reaction and the emotion are assumed to occur at the the same time

cognitive arousal theory

theory of emotion in which both the physical arousal and the labeling of that arousal based on cues from the environment must occur before the emotion is experienced

Ekman's study

research showed that people of different cultures can consistently recognize seven facial expressions: anger, fear, disgust, happiness, surprise, sadness, and contempt

common sense theory of emotion

theory of emotion in which a stimulus leads to an emotion of fear, which then leads to bodily arousal through the autonomic nervous system

Schacter and Singer's Study of Emotion

Participants who were exposed to the "angry" man interpreted their own physical arousal as anger. While
participants who were exposed to the "happy" man interpreted their own physical arousal as happiness.

facial feedback hypothesis

theory of emotion that assumes that facial expressions provide feedback to the brain concerning the emotion being expressed, which in turn causes and intensifies the emotion

Lazarus's cognitive mediational theory

theory of emotion in which a stimulus must be interpreted by a person in order to result in a physical response and emotional reaction

positive psychology movement

a viewpoint that recommends shifting the focus of psychology away from the negative aspects to a more positive focus on strengths, well-being, and the pursuit of happiness.

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