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the process by which activities are started, directed, and continued so that physical or psychological needs or wants are met.
type of motivation in which a person performs an action because it leads to an outcome that is external to the person
type of motivation in which a person performs an action because the act itself is rewarding or satisfying in some internal manner
the biologically determined and innate patterns of behavior that exists in both people and animals
early approach to motivation that assumes people are governed by instincts similar to those of animals.
William McDougal proposed 18 human instincts, however this approach faded because it offered no explanation
a requirement of some material (such as food or water) that is essential for survival of the organism
a psychological tension and physical arousal arising when there is a need that motivates the organism to act in order to fulfill the need and reduce the tension.
approach to motivation that assumes a person acts to reduce drive and satisfy need
acquired (secondary) drives
those drives that are learned through experience or conditioning, such as the need for money or social approval
need for achievement nAch
a need that involves a strong desire to succeed in attainin goal,s not only realistic ones but also challenging ones
locus of control
concept in which people who assume they have control over what happens in their lives and believe intelligence is changeable are considered to be internal, and those who feel their lives are controlled by fate/luck/powerful others and believe intelligence is unchangeable are considered to be external
motive that appears to be unlearned but causes an increase in stimulation, such as curiosity
theory of motivation in which people are said to have an optimal level of tension that they seek to maintain by increasing or decreasing stimulation
relationship between performance and arousal where moderate levels of arousal lead to better performace than levels of arousal that are too low or too high
theories of motivation in which behavior is explained as a response to the external stimulus and its rewarding properties
incentive theories that assume the actions of humans cannot be predicted or fully understood without understanding the beliefs, values, and the importance that a person attaches to them at any given moment in time
according to Maslow, the point that is seldom reached at which people have sufficiently satisfied the lower needs and achieved their full human potential
Maslow's hierarchy of needs
physiological needs, safety needs, belongingness and love needs, esteem needs, cognitive needs, aesthetic needs, self-actualization needs, transcendence needs
according to Maslow, times in a person's life during which self-actualization is temporarily achieved
theory of human motivation in which there are three needs that help people gain a sense of self and healthy relationships with others: autonomy, competence, relatedness
a hormone secreted by the pancreas to control the levels of fats, proteins, and carbohydrates in the body by reducing the level of glucose in the bloodstream.
hormones that are secreted by the pancreas to control the levels of fats, proteins, and carbohydrates in the body by increasing the level of glucose in the bloodstream
area of the hypothalamus that if destroyed leads to overeating; the satiety center
area of the hypothalamus that if destroyed leads to loss of appetite, under eating; the hunger center
condition in which a person reduces eating to the point that a weight loss of 15 percent below the ideal body weight or more occurs
the "feeling" aspect of consciousness, characterized by a certain physical arousal, a certain behavior that reveals the emotion to the outside world, and an inner awareness of feelings
James-Lange theory of emotion
theory in which a physiological reaction leads to the labeling of an emotion
Cannon-Bard theory of emotion
theory in which the physiological reaction and the emotion are assumed to occur at the the same time
cognitive arousal theory
theory of emotion in which both the physical arousal and the labeling of that arousal based on cues from the environment must occur before the emotion is experienced
research showed that people of different cultures can consistently recognize seven facial expressions: anger, fear, disgust, happiness, surprise, sadness, and contempt
common sense theory of emotion
theory of emotion in which a stimulus leads to an emotion of fear, which then leads to bodily arousal through the autonomic nervous system
Schacter and Singer's Study of Emotion
Participants who were exposed to the "angry" man interpreted their own physical arousal as anger. While
participants who were exposed to the "happy" man interpreted their own physical arousal as happiness.
facial feedback hypothesis
theory of emotion that assumes that facial expressions provide feedback to the brain concerning the emotion being expressed, which in turn causes and intensifies the emotion
Lazarus's cognitive mediational theory
theory of emotion in which a stimulus must be interpreted by a person in order to result in a physical response and emotional reaction
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