The biological and environmental factors known to contribute to childhood overweight and obesity are cell, child, clan, community, country, culture.
Cell: biological and genetic characteristics, such as the inheritance of genes that contribute to fat storage.
Child: behaviors, attitudes, and knowledge relevant to weight gain, including eating patterns, exercise, and the ability to control behavior (self-regulation)
Clan: family characteristics, such as parents' encouragement to exercise and eat healthy foods, family media use, and whether the child was fed breast or artificial milk during infancy.
Community: factors in the local community, including school meal programs and vending-machine options, availability of grocery stores, and access to recreational activities.
Country: state and national characteristics such as government funding for nutrition programs, healthy-eating media campaigns, and state or federal dietary guidelines
Culture: cultural and social beliefs and practices, including gender-role expectations concerning eating and activity, cultural standards for beauty, and norms regarding portion sizes served in restaurants.