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Chapter 2 Section 1 Flashcards
Terms in this set (10)
What are the steps of the experimental method?
This method consists of a series of steps that scientists worldwide use to identify and answer questions.
2. Hypothesizing and Predicting
4. Organizing and Analyzing Data
6. Repeating Results
7. Communicating Results
Observing What step is it? Why do we observe and what can it include?
•The first step is usually observation
•Observation - is a piece of information we gather using our senses
•To extend their senses they also use tools like rulers
•Observations can include descriptions, drawings, photographs and measurements
Hypothesizing and Predicting What step?
Is it more than a guess? what does it use?
What if the hypothesis is wrong?
What is the difference between a hypothesis and predicting?
What is a theory is it fact?
•Hypothesis- is a testable idea or explanation that leads to a scientific investigation
•It is more than a guess, it also uses what you already know and can be tested
•To test their hypothesis you make a prediction - a logical statement about what will happen if the hypothesis is correct
•If a hypothesis is wrong it helps the scientists find the best explanation for their observation
•Prediction is used to test a hypothesis
•A theory can explain an observation and predict what might happen in the future, they are not FACT
Experimenting What step?
Used to find what?
What are the two essential characteristics and groups?
•An experiment is performed when questions that arise from observations cannot be answered with additional observations
•Scientists use experiments - a procedure designed to test a hypothesis under controlled conditions to find an answer for their observation
•Used to find cause-effect relationships
•Good experiments have two essential characteristics: a SINGLE VARIABLE and the CONTROL
•Variable- is a factor of interest
•Experimental Group - the group that receives the experimental treatment
•Control Group - the group that doesn't receive the experimental treatment
Organizing and Analyzing Data What step?
Why is it important?
What do they usually organize it in to and why? which is the most common?
•Careful and accurate records are extremely important
•Data- the info that a scientist gathers during an experiment (often in numeric form)
•Organizing data into tables help scientists analyze the data and it explain it
•Bar graph- one common type of graph
•Graphs are often used by scientists to display relationships or trends in data
Drawing Conclusions What step?
How do they make the conclusion?
Usually leads to what?
What do they use to determine differences and coincidences?
•Made conclusions by looking at data and comparing the outcome of their experiment with their prediction
•Usually leads them to a clear conclusion but sometimes it isn't
•Scientists most of the time use tools to help them determine if differences are important or just a coincidence
Repeating Experiments What step?
What do they look for before they accept their hypothesis?
If it repeated and the results are accurate they find the conclusions more what?
•Scientists look for a large amount of supporting evidence before they accept their hypothesis
•If a experiment is repeated more often with the same result by different people they can find their conclusions more reliable
Communicating Results What step?
How do they usually communicate their findings?
What does it include? (6)
•They usually publish their results as a scientific article if they believe their findings are important
•A scientific article includes:
1. The question explored
2. Reasons why the question is important
3. Background information
4. A precise description of how the work was done
5. The data that were collected
6. The scientist's interpretation of the data
Scientific Habits of Mind
•Scientists approach questions in different ways
•There are usually some key habits that good scientists all share when thinking about things
What are the different scientific habits of mind?
•They are curious
The Habit of Skepticism
•They are skeptical- they don't believe everything that they are told
Openness to New Ideas
•They are open to new things (like being skeptical)
•Even if the scientist is certain that his hypothesis is correct, if it is proven wrong after repeating an experiment he will consider the results as accurate even if it make the hypothesis false.
Imagination and Creativity
•They are able to think of new ideas and see things other people cannot
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