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human immunodeficiency virus; retrovirus that causes immune system failure and debilitation-spread through direct contact with bodily fluids; specifically attacks T cells
acquired immune deficiency syndrome; disease of the immune system transmitted through blood products especially by sexual contact or contaminated needles; caused by HIV; last stage of HIV infection; may take 15 years for HIV to progress to AIDS; T cell count becomes less than 200 per micro-liter of blood; depressed immune system can no longer fight infections
type of RNA virus that reproduces by transcribing itself into DNA using reverse transcriptase-resultant DNA inserts itself into a cell's DNA and is reproduced by the cell; contains only RNA; makes DNA in the eukaryotic cell
small lymphocyte developed in thymus; orchestrates immune system's response to infected or malignant cells; originate in bone marrow and thymus gland; produce cellular immunity by attacking infected cells
active component of a vaccine which stimulates the body to produce antibodies which fight off disease; stimulate immune response in body; any foreign substance that causes an immune system response
DNA polymerase enzyme that catalyzes the process of reverse transcription (formation of DNA using RNA as a template)
steps to recognizing foreign
1) antigen presenting cell ingests virus
2) APC presents viral fragments as antigens on its surface
3) helper T cells bind to APC as they recognize antigens
4) binding activates T cells, which causes production of more T and B cells
what is a virus?
a hijacker; parasite like particle containing proteins and nucleic acids that uses host's DNA and cellular machinery to reproduce
How does HIV adversely affect the T cell immune system?
1) large numbers of viruses in T cells drain cells of nutrients and energy
2) new T cells infected by large number of viruses=weakened immune system
3) APCs less effective in stimulating T cell production
why is AIDS lethal
1) attacks helper T cells (critical to immune system)
2) single stranded RNA and reverse transcriptase mutate easily so virus is difficult to treat
3) HIV remains dormant in T cells for years
4) weakened immune system=other viral, bacterial, and fungal infections
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