Trading port called Deshima traded with China, Philippines and America, but in the beginning only the Dutch
First and last foreign colony in China that was first settled by the Portuguese and overseen by them, used for trading and other business.
When an international nation is exempt from local law. Examples of this are France in Vietnam, and US in Japan.
On Jan 11, 1851, there was a formal declaration of revolution. It lasted for 14 years and involved the Hakka
Heilongjiang River, Liaohe River, Sungari River, Hanjiang River, Yangtze River, Yellow River, Nujiang River, Brahmaputra River, Lancang River, Pearl River
Zhu Yuan Zhang
Also known Hongwu Emperor, he started the Ming Dynasty after claiming to have the Mandate of Heaven. He was a part of the Red Turbans and lead peasant uprising to defeat Mongols.
They rise out of sense of uncertainty.
Examples: dervishes, sufi dancers (islamic), white lotus, red turbans
1490's, gave rise to patronage (padrodros) This basically means Spain went one way, Portugal went the other. and connected the 3 oceans through the use of silver.
British occupation of India
Britain transported Opium to China from india. They influenced India, Burma, Hongkong and Pakistan.
British East India Company
started 1664 under queen Elizabeth and ruled until 1858. They traded gunpowder and opium for cotton, silk and tea. They started off in Kolkotta and moved to Mumbai. They eventually placed a government in India instead of ruling from England
Located in Northern India to the left of the bay of Bengul. They began to decline in 1757. After the british won the Battle of Plassey, Princes and princesses were starving prisoners in the Taj Mahal and Red fort. In 1788 the empire was attacked and many in the red fort were killed.
Battle of Plassey
Took place in Palashi, Bengal. it was a battle where 4400 British troops versus 50,000 Nawab troops. Britian won and pushed the French out of India to Vietnam. British won because they covered their gunpowder during a rain storm. Happened the same time as the 7 years war and French-Indian war
Bahadur Shah Zafar
Ruled until 1857 when the Sepoy mutiny began. He was the last mugal empire, not a good ruler.
Started in 1857 when muslims and Hindus in the Britain army became aware of the use of pork fat in arms, forcing them to go against their religion. The Sepoy sacked Delhi and ended the Mughal Empire
3 Japanese Leaders
Ieyasu Tokugawa: Took control 1600-1616, his shogunate lasted until 1850
Toyotomi Hideoshi: Took control in 1586, died 1598
Oda Nobunaga: In 1572 began to unify the country, died in 1582
Qing Dynasty Emperors
Kangxi 1661-1722, big emperor who ruled when Louis the 14th did. He brought peace
Yongzheng: Kangxi's son, 1722-1735 his son is
Qianlong: 1735-1796, he created filial piety and gave up his powers so not to rule longer than his grandfather.
Jiaquing: ruled 1796-1820
Daognong: ruled 1820- 1850 during the opium war.
Aficionado of antiquities or things of the past, collecting relics, deliberately growing inward and becoming cut off.
Qing Dynasty Corruption
China is a meritocracy, people of power got their positions by buying test results. Wealthy put their sons in power. Bureaucratic responsibilities weren't being met.
How the Qing Gov dealt with non-chinese. showed China to be superior
Kowtow: bowing, showing respect.
Lord Mc Carthney
1796, tried to create trade with China. He didn't "Koton", which is physically bowing before the empire.
3 Rivers in China
Huanghe: Yellow River
Changjiang: Yangtze, literally means long
Heilongjiang: Black Dragon River
What started the Opium War
1839-1842, 1856-1860. Happened because there was a growth in population while economy dropped. Silver market fell. Everyone buyed their way into their jobs. The Gov raises taxes, and pirates rose up in the south, the grand canal closed in 1849 so many families lost jobs
Pre-Opium War Facts
in 1842 there were 5 treaty ports
Shanghai was one of them, between 1845-1858 trade increased
in 1820 to 1830 more than 7 million more taels of silver left china
The silver to copper ratios were horrible
France in the 17th century
8.7% of the world was controlled by france. Took over parts of Vietnam. In 1844, they signed the Whampoa treaty with China to rent houses, shops, build churches, hospitals and schools.
Born Jan 1, 1814 in Southern Guangdong. was educated but didn't do well on exams. Founder of the Kingdom of heavenly peace. He found a translated pamphlet for Christianity and converted. he gathered 52 minority groups throughout China including the fujian, fukien, and hakka.
Formed due to corrupt gov officials and floods. 20-100 million people were killed. Disease and scorched earth policy helped the death count. It applied millenarian-ism and helped for woman's rights and people gained a sense of nationalism. Gained a 10,000 people local army
Forming your own dynasty or empire. Removing local authority, freeing prisoners and trashing gov buildings.
Important dates of the Taiping Rebellion
1850, Qing paid little attention
Taipings grew their hair long to show rebellion
in 1853 captured the southern capital
1856: Nanjing purge, taipings started killing each other to be rid of successors
Outside involvement during the Taiping Rebellion
In Shanghai the english and french didn't want to let them in out of fear of being killed. and formed the "Ever-Victorious" army with American Frederick Ward as the leader.
What makes a Nation?
-Bounded space, decline of sovereign/king rule.
-Need a story, set boundaries, military, urban planning
-industrial, economic and technological capacity
-Pride, flags, uniform, song, story
Why US became interested in Japan
US started using Steam ships to whale in the pacific. needed coal for ships. Japan had good geography, resources, and US could reach out for mercenaries
Fought in the Mexican War. He lead 4 big black vessels to Edo Harbor. attempted to deliver a letter to open up trading ports with Japan. The letter was accepted in 1853
President during the time of the end of the Tokugawa, sent Commodore Perry to Japan.
1854: Treaty of Kanagawa with US, opened Shimoda and Hakodate
1854: treaty with Britain, 1855: Treaty with Russia/Dutch
Treaty of Amity and Commerce (Harris Treaty)
Treaty with US, more ports open including Yokohama, for a total of 6, and allowed for US citizens to live in Japan and created a fixed trading system
Problems with the Shogunate
Japanese Gov is overspending, people losing faith. People did not like dealing with foreign powers.
-He did not consult the emperor on his decision, disrespected the symbolism. 1866 Shogun dies and Keiki who takes over gives power to the emperor
Beginning of the Meiji
Jan 3, 1867, Meiji beings. Literally means: enlightened rule. in 1868 the Emperor removes all Shogun land and Tokyo becomes the new eastern capital.
Japan sent people all over to become educated.
Japanese brought alot of arms and weapons
Adopted the German Parliament: Diet system
The 2 Opium Wars
1840-1842 first opium war. too many extra-territoriality issues.
The most favored nation benefits from trade.
1856-1860 China starts the second opium war (anglo-chinese war) and loses to Britain+France
-China wanted to strengthen its military, navy, education and Gov
1894, China lost to Japan. Fought in Korea since it was a tributary state of China's
Korea in the 1800's
In 1870s it was forced open by foreign powers including Japan. 36 year long colonial rule.
Taewongun ruled from 1864-1870 and was very anti-western
After Japanese missions in 1868, 1875 and 1876 fail, in 1876 Japan sends in warships to Inchon to force this treaty
1882, China forces Korea to open ports to everyone. This causes many Korean rebellions and other powers take full advantage before the Sino-Japanese war.
4 Steps to protecting a nation
1. Modernization>Militarization: trade of arms + Industrialization: trade/build railways and steamships
3. Self Strengthening: through nationalism, pride, stories and learning
4: Strong Gov.
Chinese Treaties with the British/US/France
1842: Treaty of Nanking ( wade-giles)
1843:Treaty of Boque
1844: Treaty of Wangxia (US)
1844: Treaty of Huangpu (Fr)
The Chinese Son of God
This is what Hong Xiuguan, the Taiping leader thinks he is. He fell into 40 days of unconsciousness where he had visions of God and his son.
Progressive (good) aspects of the Taiping Rebellion
-Gave back land to peasants, erased debt and reformed land.
-Female emancipation, movement for women equality
-Education, introduced easier form of writing and new lunar calender.
How did the Taiping help end the Qing
-Encouraged an anti-manchu sentiment.
-Inspired Sun Yat Sen
-Peasant based uprising, inspired Mao Zedong
- Supporters of Mao supported Taiping
Post hoc ergo propter hoc
after this, therefore because of this, this is the people's reasoning for why someone lost the mandate of heaven
Treaty of Nanjing
In 1840, Treaty of Nanjing gave Hong Kong to Britain and broke up China's restrictions on foreign trade by opening new treaty ports. It also exempted foreigners from Chinese law and gave Britain any privileges that any other European nation might gain in the future.