What kind of reception is vision dependent on
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Cones=high intensity color reception. Rods=low intensity receptors. One type of cone=see in shade not color. proportion of cone vs rod decreases when moving from epipelagic to mesopelagic. Reef fish usually have 3 different kinds of cones. Complex eyes have evolved independently in marine species many times.
What is osmoregulationThe physiological processes that an organism uses to maintain water balance; that is, to compensate for water loss, avoid excess water gain, and maintain the proper osmotic concentration of the body fluids.Do all organisms osmoregulate?No.Osmoregulator and osmoconforrmerosmoregulators maintain a more or less stable internal osmolarity means Osmoconformers: internal osmolarity changes on the environment. changes with water.What is osmolarity? what is the osmolarity of sea and freshwaterconcentration of particles. Sea: high chloride, sodium, sulfate, and magnesium. Freshwater: low chloride, sodium, sulfate, and magnesium.What are different ranges of. osmoregulators calledEuryhaline: wide tolerance of environmental osmotic pressure Stenohaline: narrow range of environmental osmotic concentrations.Diffusion vs osmosisDiffusion: net movement of solids from high to low concentration Osmosis: net movement of WATER from regions of high water concentrations to low water concentrations.The cell membrane and osmosisHydrophobic, small, uncharged polar molecules go through the lipid bilayer. Large uncharged polar molecules and ions can't cross this membrane.Ions move through bilayer with facilitated diffusionMarine fish osmotic stressWater flows through osmosis from interior to exterior, and through diffusion ions move from seawater to the interior of the fish. Drink lots of seawater and gets rid of ions through gills and makes concentrated salty urine.Freshwater fish osmotic stressconcentration of ions is higher in fish, and concentration of water is higher in environment than inside the fish. water moves through osmosis from the environment to the fish, and ions will move from diffusion from the fish to the environment. Use gills to pump ions from outside to in and pee a lot of diluted pee, and do not drink water.Gas exchangewater enters fish through mouth. and gills pick up oxygen from water. surface area to volume ratio is large here due to lamellae. blood flows through lamellae for oxygen pick up. water and blood flow opposite direction. water flows to right and blood flows left (countercurrent gas exchange). water enters gills with 100% oxygen, and blood enters lamellae with little oxygen. as water goes through gills it loses oxygen but still has more than blood as it enters into system and the blood picks up oxygen and gains oxygen because water always has more oxygen.Type of osmotic organismsHYPEROSMOTIC (=internal osmolarity higher than environment). needs ions! HYPOOSMOTIC (= internal osmolarity lower than environment). Needs water, expels ions! ISOSMOTIC (= internal osmolarity similar to environment. does what environment does. Osmoconformer: do not regulateSharks and osmolarityTheir body fluids have the same concentration of solutes as seawater, but differ in their composition b. One of the solutes that sharks use is urea. Urea is relatively easy to produce, and works just fine as an solute from an osmotic perspective c. The main downside is that urea is that it has a destabilizing effect on many enzymes, which is countered with the use of another ion: tri-methyl amine oxide (TMAO) d. After a shark dies, the urea in their body fluids converts into the foul-smelling and toxic ammoniaAnadromy vs. CatadromyCatadromy: Born in the sea, go to the river to grow, die in the sea. Eels. Anadromy: Born in the river, grow in sea, die in the river. Salmon. Osmotic challengesAsexual reproductionsimplest form. clone themselves. requires one parent, no mating. no genetic variationSexual reproductionenergy costly, fusion of haploid gametes, different parents usually, mating required, genetic variationFour kinds of asexual reproductionBudding: forms on the parents and breaks off. sea anemone or hydra. Fission: individual splits into two. usually for prokaryotes, can be some eukaryotes. splits into two Orr more descendants replaced by two daughter organisms. Frragmentation: organism is split into fragments and each fragment grows into another organism. starfish. Parthenogenesis: females produce offspring without fertilization by male. unfertilized egg develops into a new individual. rotifer or crayfish.What can you get in sexual reproductiongenetic recombination: egg and sperm is mixed in meiosis.internal vs external reproductionexternal: individuals release their gametes at the same time. uncertain but huge genetic diversity. Internal: usually terrestrial. males put sperm in copulatory organ. usually physical connection.What variation does sexual and asexual haveself fertilizing fish: mutation and recombination. shark: sexual recombination, mutation. mother and father genes. parthenogenic rotifer: mutation.Environmental conditions and reproductionstable: favor asexual reproduction. you are already adapted so just clone yourself. Unstable: sexual reproductivity because you need variable offspring.When are males not a part of reproductive processes:parthenogenetic notifiers.Body shapesfusiform: streamlined, fast swimmer, predators, move tail side to side. Compressiform: compressed at sides. quick bursts of speed. plants and narrow spaces. butterfly fish. Depressiforms: flattened top to bottom. bottom fish slow. hide or camouflage. Filiform: elongated, live in soft mud, slow, snake like. eel.Purpose of finsdorsal: turning and stops. Adipose: located on back. soft and fleshy. could be flow sensor. pectoral: yaw and pitch brakes causing drag. Pelvic: up or down, sharp turns and quick stops. Anal: stabilize while swimming. Caudal : for locomotion.Caudal fin typesround: sharp turns quick starts, makes drag. Truncate: short Burts, bottom dwelling. less drag than clownfish. Forked: reduces drag, open water fish. lunate: fast moving less drag, great acceleration. not a lot of maneuverability. Heterocercal: lift, maneuverability.structures involved in thrustbody caudal fin, median paired fin. Undulatory: wave like movements of the propulsive structure including most of the bottom. Oscillatory: swiveling of propulsive structure without wave like.Propulsion from undulatory to oscillatoryanguilliform, subcarcarangiform, carcarrangiform, thunniform, ostraciform. Thunniform is most effective.Endothermsproduce their own heatectothermsgain heat through environmenthomeothermshave constant body temperaturepoikilothermsbody temperature change depends on the environmentWhere is most efficient fishingareas of upwelling with nutrient rich water, and shallow water over continental shelves with rapid regeneration nutrients.What group has the most catchclupeiformes. this includes anchovies, sardines, herring. 1/3 of total commercial catch. dont usually eat themfishing down the food webThe process whereby fisheries in a given ecosystem, having depleted the large predatory fish on top of the food web, turn to increasingly smaller species, finally ending up with previously spurned small fish and invertebrates.Pros and cons of fishing down food web:up to 10x more food. Cons: messes up the ecosystem. no one wants to eat the small fish and they are harder to find and gather.How much seafood consumed in the world comes from aquaculture?50%Which species is richest in healthy omega 3 fatty acidsanchovieswhich fish are destined to non human consumption, including fishmeal and fish oilanchovieshow will aquaculture feed 9 million peopleculture of high trophic level species will have to be prioritizedwhich group has the lowest carbon footprintbivalvesenvironmental change and changes to selective pressureit decreases in effective population size. genetic diversity goes down, and genetic drift and inbreeding goes up.extinction vortexlower genetic diversity, higher genetic drift and increases drift and so on.conservation aquacultureraise animals in captivity and then release them. they must not affect the genetic structure of the wild populations.consideration of conservation aquacultureDomestication: selective pressure is softer than in the wild Founder effect: reduction in genetic diversity when we only use a small number of captive fish. Inbreeding depression.Genetic Considerationsfind wild population, identify materials for broomstick, make sure you are not altering the genetic poolphysiological considerationsuse locally adapted fish adapted to the environment you want to restore. if they are not available, use extirpated wild broodstocks. exercise the fish. exercise the fish, make the habitat similarenvironmental considerationsmake sure the habitat can provide enough prey for the new fish. keep in mind carrying capacity, dont put more than you can hold.what is the purpose of conservation aquacultureproduce organisms with the minimal genetic divergence from their wild counterparts to maintain long term adaptive traits.What is a source of marine pollutionsewage is a major source of marine pollution, burning fossil fuel, most plastic pollution in the ocean is from land based activities. marine oil pollution does not come primarily from oil spills.Biomagnificationbuild up through the food webBioaccumulationbuild up along an animals lifetimeWhat is a concern exposure routedermal exposure is more of a concern for aquatic animals because their skin is exposed to contaminants in the water at all timesWhat does high levels of plasma vitellogenin indicate in male fishes?Male has been exposed to estrogenic compounds, and their reproductive cycle will be altered