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Chapter 23-26 Study Guide
copied from prestonzen
Terms in this set (174)
Who was the Portuguese Mariner who sailed to Calicut in 1498?
Vasco da Gama
Who was Thomas Peters?
A West African slave who crossed the Atlantic four times
the most prosperous country in Europe in the 17th century was?
Who was Dona Marina?
A slave who helped Cortes conquer Tenochtitlan
Who were the black pioneers?
A company of escaped slaves who fought to maintain British rule in the colonies
During the early modern era, which non-European people explored the Indian Ocean?
Chinese & Ottoman
What happened when the Spanish invaded the Aztec Empire?
They toppled the empire and imposed their own rule in Mexico and Peru
Russian territorial expansion into northern Eurasia began in?
What were the main motivations behind European exploration?
Search for basic resources and lands for cash crops, the desire to establish new trade routes to Asian markets, and spreading Christianity
Russian merchants and explorers began the expansion into Siberia in the quest for?
Who the term "mestizo" refer to?
Mixed children of Europeans and Native Americans
What elements contributed to the rise in maritime trade during the Early Modern Era in Africa?
Commercial opportunities drew Europeans to west Africa coast, west Africa turned attention to Atlantic, helped promote emergence of prosperous port cities and powerful coastal kingdoms that trade through the ocean rather than the desert. first opportunities for long-distance trade
What was the first European nation to dominate trade with Asia?
the country that finished the Seven Years' War with global hegemony was?
What was the most important factor in the Spanish victory over the Aztecs and the Incas?
The Europeans were able to exploit the divisions between the native people and the effects of epidemic diseases that devastated native societies
What was the most important city in the Songhay Empire?
What crop did the Portuguese believe could be cultivated in the Atlantic Ocean Islands?
had consequences much more profound than did earlier rounds of biological exchange- permanently altered the world's human geography and natural environment
in the long term, the Columbian exchange?
Who were the first indigenous people in the Americas to come into contact with the Spanish?
Who was the most influential ruler in the rise of the Songhay Empire?
Why did Sunni Ali build a powerful navy?
To control the Niger River
enslaved Africans transported involuntarily to South/North American, and Caribbean destinations
from 1500 to 1800, the largest contingent migrants consisted of?
What was the first capital of the Spanish Caribbean?
What were some of the reasons the Europeans were interested in finding a maritime trade route?
The collapse of Mongol empire/bubonic plague made silk roads unsafe, wanted to eliminate Muslim intermediaries for spices and other goods and would increase the quantities of these goods and yield profits, also offered a more direct access to African markets
by 1750, all parts of the world participated in a global trade network in which European's played dominant roles except:
What was Christopher Columbus' first plan?
To build forts and trading posts where merchants could trade with local peoples for products desired by European consumers
What religion were all the Songhay emperors?
Why did the Reconquista end in 1492?
The Muslim kingdom of Granada fell to Spanish Christian forces just weeks before Christopher Columbus set sail
Who were the encomenderos?
What army defeated the Songhay Empire in 1591?
A Moroccan army
to denounce the sale of indulgences
Luther's initial stimulus for formulating the Ninety-Five Theses was?
What were the advantages of lateen sails?
Very maneuverable and could catch winds from the side as well as behind
the author of the Ninety-Five Theses was?
Compared to 4 million people in 1492, how many people lived in the Caribbean in the 1540s?
A few thousand
What empire did Vasco de Gama play a central role in collapsing?
The Swahili City states of East Africa
What was the astrolabe designed to measure?
Latitude by measuring the angle of the sun or polar star above the horizon
What were two Chinese maritime inventions?
Compass and stern post rudder
need to raise funds for the reconstruction of St. Peter's basilica in Rome
the catholic church dramatically pushed the sale of indulgences in the 16th century because of the?
Whose empire did Hernan Cortes conquer?
The Aztecs' Empire
What country controlled all of the Swahili city-states in 1505?
What religion did Afonso I, the ruler of Kongo, convert to and convince his subjects to convert to?
Who was the last emperor of the Aztec empire?
WAS: the pretentiousness of church authorities who arrogated to themselves powers that belonged to God, the sale of indulgences
which of the following was not one of Luther's problems with the Roman Catholic Church?
What are wind wheels?
They were created by strong winds blowing regularly north and south of the equator in the Atlantic/Pacific oceans and ocean currents follow a similar pattern
What was the real name of the capital of Kongo, known to the Europeans as Sao Salvador?
What was the Volta do Mar?
A strategy that enabled the Portuguese to sail from the Canaries to Portugal-instead of trying to force their way against the trade winds, they sailed northwest into the open ocean until they found the westerly winds and then turned east
Who conquered the Incas?
Who said, "i cannot and will not recant anything, for it is neither safe nor right to act against one's conscience. Here I stand. I can do no other"?
Which man conquered the Moroccan port of Ceuta and sponsored a series of voyages down the West African coast?
Prince Henry of Portugal
holy roman empire
in the centuries following the fall of Rome, the only unifying force for all of Europe was?
How did the conquistadores feel about their government interfering in the New World?
They did not welcome the arrival of bureaucrats, but with the aid of Spanish lawyers, tax collectors, and military forces, royal officials had their way
converting to Roman Catholicism (Christianity) and attending religious services daily and studying the Bible
King Nzinga Mbemba of Kongo (king alfonso) was best known for?
Who was the first European to sail around the Cape of Good Hope?
was because the pope wouldn't allow him to divorce his wife, so he severed relations with the Roman church and made himself Supreme Head of the Anglican Church- an english pope
Henry VIII's reformation in England?
What were the two centers of Spanish royal authority in the Americas?
Mexico and Peru
eventually the destruction of the kingdom and establishment of a Portuguese colony in Angola
An alliance with Portugal brought wealth and foreign recognition to Kongo, as well as?
What was the profitable merchandise that Vasco da Gama purchased in India?
Pepper and Cinnamon
the pope wouldn't allow him to divorce his wife who hadn't given him a son
the event that inspired Henry VIII to confront the pope was?
What was the name of the chief Spanish royal administrators in the Americas?
Viceroys - vice+royalty
the title of the king
the Portuguese referred to Ndongo as Angola because of the word ngola, which meant?
Who led the reviews to check the power of the viceroys?
the chief obstacle to Portuguese control of Angola came from?
the author of the Institutes of the Christian Religion was?
What did Christopher Columbus base his decision to sail west to Asia upon?
He believed the Eurasian landmass covered 270 degrees of longitude and that the earth was a relatively small sphere
What island did Columbus reach when he sent delegates to seek the court of the Emperor of China?
the city that stood as John Calvin's model Protestant community was?
What was the result of the Treaty of Tordesillas?
It divided the world along an imaginary north-south line where Spain could claim any land west of the line as long as it wasn't already under Christian rule, and Portugal gained the same rights east of the line (1494)
the first European colony in sub-Saharan Africa was?
On October 12th 1491, what island did Columbus land on?
Guanahani by Tainos, but rechristened San Salvador (in the Bahamas)
Council of Trent
the council that helped define and advance the Catholic Reformation took place in?
What was the name of the Portuguese Mariner who first spotted Brazil in 1500?
Pero Alvares Cabral
in an effort to drive the Portuguese out of Ndongo, Queen Nzinga formed an alliance with the?
a trading post was built at Cape Town in 1652 by the?
was an assembly of bishops, cardinals, and other high church officials who met intermittently between 1545 and 1563 to address matters of doctrine and reform
the Council of Trent?
When did the Portuguese began to show interest in Brazil?
When French and Dutch mariners began to visit Brazilian shores
Who was the first European to see the Pacific Ocean?
Vasco Nunez de Balboa
Which early explorers were Portueguese?
Dias, Da Gama, Magellan
the Society of Jesus
Ignatius Loyola was instrumental in?
Which of the following sites in North America was originally a Dutch colony?
this massive, fortified city in southern Africa dominated the gold trade in its region of the continent until the late 15th century...?
Where did Ferdinand Magellan die?
a theory developed by theologians that witches derived their powers from the devil
the explosion of witch-hunting in the 16th century was most probably caused by?
Why did the Dutch, English, and French explore the Northern Atlantic?
In search of fish and a northwest passage to Asia
when the Dutch founded Cape Town they encountered which of these indigenous groups, whom they called the Hottentots?
How well did the English colony of Jamestown survive its first year?
They had food shortages and disease became so severe that only 60 of the colony's 500 members survived the winter of 1609
the center of Islamic learning in west Africa was?
Ninety-five percent of the condemned witches were?
Whose crew was the first to circumnavigate the world in 1522?
Which country did most of the actual exploration of the Pacific Ocean?
What were the differences between the approach to colonization of the English, French, and Spanish?
English and French private investors financed expeditions vs. royal backing for Spanish. No viceroys in North America. English negotiated treaties with the peoples whose lands they colonized
the commercial centers of west Africa and the Swahili city-states of east Africa
Islam was popular in sub-Saharan Africa in?
King Philip II of Spain
the Spanish leader who sent an armada against England in 1588 was?
What was true about the American Indians the English and French came into contact with?
They formed dozens of distinct societies, many practiced agriculture and relied on hunting and moving villages in pursuit of game. migrated regularly between regions
through syncretic means
Islam and Christianity usually spread into sub-Saharan Africa?
the leader of England during the attempted invasion of the Spanish Armada was?
Which explorer led three expeditions into the Pacific in the 18th century?
Captain James Cook
the seven northern provinces (modern Netherlands) had won their independence and formed a republic known as the United Provinces, leaving 10 southern provinces (modern Belgium) under Spanish rule
the religious struggle in the Dutch provinces finally resulted in?
Compared to an estimate of 5-10 million indigenous people in the United States in 1492, how many lived in the United States in 1800?
were a pastoral Muslims from the savannas in west Africa who led a series of military campaigns to establish Islamic states and impose their own brand of Islam in west Africa
What island did Captain James Cook die on during a fight?
In their attempt to control the spice trade in the Indian Ocean during the 16th and 18th centuries, the Europeans...?
Achieved a monopoly with the help of alliances with South Indian Princes
the Thirty Years' War
the most destructive European conflict before the twentieth century was?
Who was Cabeza de Vaca?
He was a Spanish nobleman who joined an expedition who went from Hispaniola to explore Florida in 1527
DIDNT: stamp out African religions or eliminate indigenous elements from the syncretic Islam of west Africa
What was the name for Spanish migrants who were born in Europe?
DID: founded powerful states, promoted spread of Islam to the countryside, established schools, laid foundations for new rounds of Islamic-state building in 19/20 centuries
which of the following was not an accomplishment of the Fulani?
DID: England, Spain, France, Austria, Prussia, Russia
which one of these states did not become a powerful sovereign state during the centuries after 1500?
What was the Portuguese dominance of trade dependent upon?
Their ability to control were ships reached port and payed duty tax
Which explorer seized Hormuz, Goa, and Melaka in the early 1500's?
emperor of the Holy Roman Empire during the 16th century
Charles V was the?
What Spanish/Portuguese colony mirrored the European tradition of higher percentages of women settlers?
Peru - Woman settlers ensured the men married amongst the colony and not the native people
the founder of the religion that stressed that Jesus Christ had been a black man and that Kongo was the true holy land was?
Which nation did the Portuguese lose the port of Melaka to in 1641?
WAS: ruled different lands according to its own laws and customs- didnt have the ambition to extend his authority by military force and only used army for putting down rebellions/ foreign problems
which of the following factors was not one of the reasons for Charles V's failure to build a centralized, sovereign state in the Holy Roman Empire?
Who were metis?
The French equivalent of mestizos
during the early modern period in Africa, the basis of social organization continued to be?
the most important American crop introduced into Africa in the 16th century was?
Fernando and Isabel
the Spanish Inquisition was first established in 1478 by?
What was the greatest feature of the Americas to the Spanish?
Which cities were Portuguese trading ports?
Calicut, Mocambique, Hormuz, Macau (CHMM)
Why was Portugall unable to maintain its early dominance of trade?
It was a small nation with a small population
Englands and Netherlands
which of the following states developed constitutional governments in the 17th century?
By the 17th century, what was the most prominent site of agriculture in Spanish America?
by 1800, the population of sub-Saharan Africa stood at?
What were the advantages the English and Dutch had over the Portuguese?
They sailed faster, cheaper, and more powerful ships, and they conducted trade through the join-stock company
the English Civil War ended with the trial and decapitation of?
How did the native populations of the Americas rebel against Spanish rule?
Rebellion, halfhearted work, and retreat into mountains and forests where Spanish power did not reach
throughout most of history, the majority of slaves came from?
wealth and power in Africa came not from the possession of land, but rather from control over the human labor that made the land productive
one of the factors that made African slavery different from the varieties practiced elsewhere was that?
How the Portuguese provide labor for their sugar plantations?
They first tried to enlist local populations as laborers, but then turned to importing slaves
the Glorious Revolution
the bloodless change of power in 1688-1689 that ensured representative, constitutional government in England was known as?
What was the VOC?
Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie (United East India Company), the Dutch joint-stock company
What country did the Philippines fall to?
the architect of absolutism was?
What commodity did Europeans in North America find to be profitable in bartering?
caused the slave trade to expand dramatically
the arrival of the Europeans?
Where was the center of Spanish commercial activity in Asia?
King Louis XIV
the individual associated with the phrase "l'etat, c'est moi" was?
Originally exported from Virginia, what was the first great American cash crop?
the first European slave traders were the?
horses and manufactured goods - mostly cloth and metal wares (firearms)
as part of the triangular slave trade, the Europeans usually picked up slaves in Africa in return for?
Who was the first plentiful labor force in North America?
Indentured servants from Europe then turned to African slave labor
What religion did the native population of the Philippines convert to under Spanish rule?
worked to undermine power of nobility and enhance authority of the king, large bureaucracy staffed by commoners loyal to the king, officials to supervise royal policy in provinces, destroyed French Calvinists political/military but allowed them to observe faith---ABSOLUTE MONARCH
which of the following was not one of the policies pursued by Louis XIV?
Who was Jan Pieterszoon Coen?
The architect of Dutch policy, who founded Batavia on the island of Java to serve as an entrepot for the VOC
King Louis XIV
Versailles was the magnificent royal palace of?
Which group did the Virgin of Guadeloupe become a symbol for?
An increasingly mestizo society in Mexico
50% at the beginning and then declined to about 5% per voyage
throughout the entire period of trans-Atlantic slavery, the mortality rate for the middle passage was?
What was the purpose of the Dutch Policy in Indonesia?
To establish a VOC monopoly over spice production and trade, enabling Dutch merchants to reap enormous profits in European markets
WAS: reformed army (offered better pay/drafted peasants/modern weapons), aristocrats had to study to aim cannons correctly and began construction of navy, gov.bureaucracy to facilitate tax collection/improve administrative efficiency, cosmetic makeover (fashions, shaving beards)
which of the following was not a part of Peter the Great's policy of westernization?
What European country recorded the first sighting of Australia?
Netherlands; Dutch Sailors
the heaviest slave trading took place in (time)?
how many Africans were forcefully brought to the Americas as part of the trans-Atlantic slave trade?
Yemelians Pugachevs rebellion
Catherine the Great's attempts at reform in Russia were essentially ended by?
What area was known as New Holland during the 17th century?
European states mutually recognized their rights to organize their own domestic affairs, including religion
the most important consequence of the Peace of Westphalia was?
How the did British use their colony of Australia?
As a penal colony where convicted criminal migrants outnumbered free settlers until 1830s
provided agricultural labor on plantations in the Caribbean or the Americas
the vast majority of slaves?
the Seven Years' War
which of the following conflicts is the largest war to unfold in the wake of the Peace of Westphalia?
In the 1670s and 1680s, what area did the Spanish express interest in consolidating control because it lay directly on the route from Acapulco to Manila?
the only place where a slave revolt actually brought about an end to slavery was?
the balance of power
the fundamental principle of diplomacy in early modern Europe was?
In 1779, what island did Captain James Cook die on during a violent confrontation with natives?
WAS: Vodou, Santeria, Candomble
which of the following was not a syncretic religion tied to Africans in the Americas?
by 1800, the population of Europe had risen to?
the first European nation to abolish the slave trade was?
the system by which unfinished materials were delivered to rural households for production was known as the?
the first great philosophical proponent of capitalism was?
Claudius Ptolemy of Alexandria- envisioned a motionless earth surrounded by a series of nine hollow spheres that revolved around it
the Ptolemaic universe was based on?
"On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres" was written by?
that planetary orbits are elliptical, not circular, was demonstrated by?
the theory of universal gravity is associated with?
the Roman Catholic church that he considered was an agent of oppression
When Voltaire urged his readers to "crush the damned thing," he was talking about?
that the knowledge of human affairs was going to advance as fast as modern science, and they believed that rational understanding of human/natural affairs would bring about a new era of constant progress
most philosophers believed?
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