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Arts and Humanities
Cognition: CHAPTER 9: LANGUAGE
Terms in this set (80)
What is a lexical decision task?
an experimental method in which the participant is presented with a string of letters and must decide whether they are a real word or not
How many words comprises the humans vocabulary?
What is the most fundamental difference between human and animal language?
the presence or absence of grammar for combining words
Human language, on the other hand, has both a set of fixed symbols—i.e., 'words'—but it also has the ability to combine these symbols into an explosively large number of combinations, what we call _______________
The ability to combine words in novel ways is called _________
True or False: Digital infinity has only been observed in humans
True or False: While no animal species has ever been observed using true, productive language, this does not necessarily mean that they are incapable of language
Who was Alex the parrot?
A parrot that was trained to produce some remarkable linguistic behaviors and successfully used over 200 words including more abstract words like shape and color
Alex the Parrot's language abilities included the ability to:
understand lots of words including abstract terms such as color and shape.
How did researchers use non human primates to experiment whether they could learn language?
By using sign language since they lack vocal capabilities
How many signs did Washoe the chimp learn?
250 signs but combined them to mean other things
True or False: To date, true language does appear to be unique to humans
Alex the parrot and Washoe the chimp demonstrated that:
animals are unable to produce true language, even with extensive training
Big debate in language is
nature vs nurture
What did BF skinner believe?
all kinds of language is learned
How did BF skinner believe language is learned
skill learning such as...
1. trial and error with reinforcement of correct or not correct
2. through model language of parents
B.F. Skinner proposed that all of language is learned based on:
reinforcement and modeling.
What did Nosh Chomsky believe about language
there is an innate capacity to learn language that is present before actual language experience in the womb or after meaning basic concepts of language—that there are words, syntax, tense—do not need to be learned
Chomsky proposed the idea of ____________
What is universal grammar?
the idea that we contained some of the basic scaffolding of syntax but with the specific details to be learned based on experience and proposed that this grammatical ability emerged due to some specific mutations that changed our brains over a relatively short period of evolutionary history (FOXP2)
What is FOXP2 gene used for?
necessary for language development
(if gene is damaged it causes sever language disabilities)
Noam Chomsky proposed that:
there is an innate capacity to learn language that is present prior to any actual language experience
What is the poverty of stimulus?
Chomsky argued that some language capabilities must be innate because the rules of grammar are often ambiguous just based on examples
(Chomsky pointed out that we never explicitly learn certain rules, certainly not as children. Yet, kids somehow infer this rule from a limited number of examples. He argued that this reflects a preexisting set of rules about grammar that precedes the experience)
Noam Chomsky's argument that some language capabilities must be innate because the rules of grammar are often ambiguous just based on examples is called:
poverty of the stimulus
What is an example of poverty of the stimulus?
Emmigrants children combining the pidgin of their parents with the language of their home country and creating a new grammar. Of course, these children cannot learn this language because they are the first to speak it!
The children of pidgin speakers take the broken language of their parents and turn it into a fully expressive new language, called a creole. This is an example of:
people acquiring grammar without sufficient stimuli
What is a second example of poverty of stimulus...
deaf people having the specialized capacity to learn a language, even without sufficient information for learning
Deaf isolates, who can't hear but are not exposed to any real sign language....
often develop some form of sign language even if not exposed to it by others
Ho can poverty of the stimulus be overcame?
complex learning models
Language learning begins:
True or false: This developmental progression, even in the absence of structured input from the parents, is often taken as another source of evidence that some language capacities are 'built-in' to development without having to be directly learned
there is consistent evidence that certain factors can lead to accelerated language learning, which may have implications for later educational performance
What is child directed speech?
consists of a parent or older sibling speaking directly to a child in a type of mothers
What is motherase?
using sing-song like speech cadences, exaggerated vowel pronunciations, and repetition to accelerate language learning
Why is mothers important?
help infants identify the beginning and end of speech sounds and draw their attention to important concepts and words
Child-Directed Speech (CDS), or Infant Directed Speech (IDS) is best described as:
a type of speech adults and older children use with infants and small children.
What is the head turn task used for?
assessing language perception abilities by comparing how often the baby turns to actual changes in a speech sound
What did the head turn task prove?
found that the language abilities of the infants in their study were positively correlated with their mother's use of elongated and open vowel sounds typical of motherese
True or False: any form of CDS is necessary to develop language
False, not necessary
Motherese, or any form of child-directed speech, is necessary to develop language.
What is phonological ambiguity?
identifying these phonemes and morphemes in a stream of speech
How was phonological ambiguity experimented?
spliced out individual words from the recordings and played them back to the people who had originally spoken them
(proved to be more successful when given context clues from before or after the spliced word by allowing the brain to combine what sounds or words are likely to be uttered)
What is the Phenomic restoration effect?
proving phonological ambiguity by replacing sounds of a word with a persons cough but people are still able to determine the word (usually don't realize the sound is missing) (uses top down)
Using the Phonemic Restoration Effect, Warren (1970) found that most participants did not notice when the 's' sound in the word 'legislature' was removed and replaced with the sound of someone coughing. He suggested this occurred because there was a ____________ effect.
What is the nonverbal form of phonological ambiguity?
articulations (movements of a speakers mouth that allows a person to determine the pheneome being pronounced because of familiarity)
What is the Mcgurk effect?
when we view the visual articulations of one phoneme while hearing the auditory signal consistent with a different phoneme (This phenomenon demonstrates that our brain uses additional info besides the speech stimulus to determine what phoneme is being said)
True or False: Another challenge faced during language processing is figuring out where one morpheme begins and the other ends.
true, SPEECH SEGMENTATION. This is because when we speak, we do not actually pause between words. Instead, words and sentences jumble together without any clear demarcation
A challenge during language processing that occurs when we speak because we do not pause between words in a sentence.
How was speech segmentation studied?
presenting infants with non words and words and seeking if they look at nonword (babies took a clear bias to nonwords by being statistical learners who encode the frequency with which different sounds appear together)
What is lexical ambiguity?
differentiating individual words that have different meanings
what are homophones?
words that sound the same but mean different things
(example: eight and ate)
What are homographs?
reading words that are spelled the same but have multiple meanings and/or pronunciations
How do we get over lexical ambiguity?
using context clues
What did the lexical decision task prove?
that when a word that has multiple meanings appears, the more frequent meaning beats out the other meanings based on speed alone because people were faster at recognizing strings as real words when those words were more common
What is the term for words such as 'ate' and 'eight' or 'son' and 'sun' (English words that sound the same but have different meanings)?
Using the lexical decision task, Swinney (1979) questioned whether the brain entertains, and therefore activates the multiple meanings of a word, such as bug (as in insect and a spying device). He found that:
we activate multiple meanings for a very short period of time.
What is the syntax first approach?
sentence is derived on grammar alone
What is late closure?
principle states that as long as it makes grammatical sense, we tend to attach incoming words to the phrase we are currently processing rather than assuming they belong to a different phrase that is still coming up
This principle states that we tend to attach incoming words to the phrase we are currently processing rather than assuming they belong to a different phrase that is still coming up.
The syntax-first approach suggests that we do not take the meaning of words into consideration when first parsing a sentence except to determine which grammatical category they belong to.
Trueswell and colleagues (1994) used __________ to see whether participants had to go back and reanalyze sentences that contained parsing ambiguity.
The ability to communicate complex ideas, share our internal thoughts, emotions, and plans for the future.
The ability to combine words in novel ways.
Using Alex the parrot and Washoe the chimp as examples, it was demonstrated that animals ____________ expand their communicative capabilities well beyond their natural tendencies.
B.F. Skinner thought that language is learned through:
Trial and error with reinforcement
Noam Chomsky thought that which of these basic concepts of language do not need to be learned?
That there are words, syntax, and tense
The name of the language when children combine the pidgin of their parents with the language of their home country while creating a new grammar is
The broken form of language spoken by adults who move to foreign countries and develop limited capabilities in the language of their adopted country.
The smallest unit of speech that can change the meaning of a word.
How many morphemes are in the words "KITCHEN CHAIRS"?
Pollack and Picketts' (1964) study where they recorded conversations of students and spliced out individual words from the recording demonstrated that
Context plays an important role in speech perception
The __ effect involves viewing visual articulations of one phoneme while hearing the auditory signal consistent with a different phoneme.
During language processing, the task of figuring out where one morpheme begins and the other ends is called:
Words that sound the same but mean different things, such as 'ate' and 'eight.'
In the lexical decision task, participants:
decide if a string of letters is a real word or not
has been found that damage to this region does not always lead to severe speech production problems and that patients can have such speech production deficits without damage to this region.
Broca's area is located in the
Linguistic Relativity is the idea that:
Language affects other areas of cognition
Winawer and colleagues (2007) found, using a color matching task, that:
Having different names for colors leads us to perceive colors as more different
A computer that has true human-like language capabilities:
Is far out of reach
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