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Plant Life Final Exam
Terms in this set (469)
Why is plant biotechnology used?
To capitalized on the biological use of a product
What is plant biotechnology?
The utilization of plant products and processes
growing whole plants from cells
What are some examples of plant biotechnology?
Tissue cultures, gene/genome sequences and biofuel production
Biotechnology tools have expanded the study of
What is the most used plant in plant biotechnology?
Why is the Arabidopsis the most used species in plant biotechnology?
It has an extremely fast regeneration time (4-6 weeks seed to seed)
What are some biotechnology tools that have expanded the study of plant physiology?
Targeted manipulation (mutation, over-expression of genes to help understand their function), tissue, cell, and sub-cellular localization of expression products and measuring genes expression and/or function
Traditional plant bores results in the combination of _____ in offspring, which results in a lot of ______
multiple genes; random combination
Traditional plant breeding
A chromosome contains thousands of genes. Traditional plant breeding combines many genes at once
Modern plant breeding
Using plant biotechnology, a single gene can be added
In traditional plant breeding, parents must be
closely related and must cross
In modern plant breeding, the parents
don't have to be closely related
What are genetically engineered plants sometimes referred to as?
Plants in which DNA from another species (with which the plant could not cross) has been integrated
Transgenic plants are created through what process?
Describe the event of transformation
The genetic manipulation of a cell resulting from delivery and incorporation of DNA
The act of transformation is often referred to as an
What transformation process inserts a fragment of its own DNA into a plant cells
Agrobacterium tumefaciens (a soil bacterium)
What does agrobacterium tumefaciens induce those cells to produce?
the plant hormones that promote cell division
What do cells from agrobacterium tumefaciens transformation produce?
tumor-like growth called a crown gall tumor
Do plants have cancer?
Who recognized the ability of the bacterium to do this, late 1970's?
Mary Dell Chilton and the colleagues
Describe transforming plants using Agrobacterium
Through the use restriction enzyme and DNA ligase, the gene of interested into the TI plasmid. The recombinant TI plasmid is introduced into the plant cells in culture. The inserted T DNA carrying gene is used in the regeneration of plant with a new trait
Agrobacterium effectively transformed dicots, but not initially effective for
Biolistics or microprojectile bombardment uses what
A particle gun or "gene gun"
How is biolistics or microprojectile bombardment performed?
DNA of interest is coated on non-reactive metal particles (Gold or Tungsten) are physically forced inside of plant cells at high velocity using gas pressure
How can we verify that transformation was successful?
Analyze DNA (using PCR) to see it your sequence is there, selecting for the trait being engineered, physical indicators/markers and analyze novel protein production
Tissues cultures are used to do what?
Take the successfully transformed cells and regrow them into whole plants
Tissue cultures uses the power of what?
How is breeding used after transformation?
The new transgenic plants are bred with each other and existing crop plants that are vigorous
What are some of the top transformed crop foods worldwide?
Corn, potato, rice, sweet potato and wheat
What is another plant that has been transformed?
Input traits benefit who?
What are some examples of input traits?
Insect resistance, herbicide tolerance, pathogen resistance, drought, cold and salt tolerance and disease resistance
Input traits produce better
What input traits are most commonly used in production currently?
Insect tolerance and herbicide tolerance
What are some examples of output traits?
Improved nutritional content, production of novel compounds and reduced oxidation (browning) of cut fruits and other organs
Describe insect resistance
Genes from the Cry gene family of the bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), which encode for insecticidal toxin.
When insect ingest protein from insecticidal toxin, what happens?
They eventually starve
What has been the outcome of implementing Bt crops?
It has reduced pesticide application, reduced pest populations and helped increase potential crop yields
Insect resistance uses plants engineered with genes encoding toxin from what?
What are a significant problem in crop fields?
How is herbicide tolerance implemented?
Engineer crop plants with an enzyme that will render them resistant to herbicide effects
What is an example of a weed that is resistant to herbicides?
What is credited for helping save Hawaiian papaya industry against Papya Ring Spot Virus?
What are some other plant crops that virus resistance has been used for?
Potato, squash and plum
Chestnut Blight Resistance
Gene from wheat engineered into American Chestnut that will break down fungal wall
Arctic Apples - Reduced Browning
Four genes down-regulated for reduced oxidation
What was arctic apple produced for?
Developed for the cut apple industry
Simplot's innate potato causes what?
Reduction in brown spot due to harvesting stress and oxidation
How does Simplot's innate potato work?
A reduction in asparagine (an amino acid) that can convert to acrylamide when reacting with certain sugars during cooking
What type of potatoes use simplot's innate potato?
Reset, Burbank Russett and Snowden lines
Freeze tolerance is what type of trait?
How does freeze tolerant Eucalyptus for biofuel?
Engineered with cold responsive gene from Arabidopsis - in the mustard family
What is the strategy of freeze tolerant eucalyptus?
increase growth range of Eucalyptus in Southeast
Freeze tolerant eucalyptus are able to with stand temperatures below what?
Freeze tolerant eucalyptus is now being evaluated by who?
Why was golden rice developed?
Vitamin A deficiency is a serve problem in developing nations, leading to poor growth, blindness, and even death
What is chemically converted to Vitamin A in the small intestine
Golden rice is engineered with two enzymes in beta-carotene production pathway from what plants?
Daffodil and corn
What does CRISPR stand for?
Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats
CRISPR was identified in bacteria as what?
a defense against bacterial viruses
CRISPR use specific RNA sequence to guide what enzyme to target DNA?
What does the CAS enzyme cleave?
Dupont plants to commercialize what which is generated using CRISPR?
Waxy corn hybrids
What is waxy corn hybrids?
Modified starch content for industrial application
What are plant hormones?
Organic compounds produced in small quantities that have variable impacts on growth, development and life cycle events (flowering, seed germination)
Plants hormones are not produced in
How many major classes/categories are there of plant hormones?
At least 6
A substance called a hormone is produced
What is a plant growth regulator (PGR)?
Any substance, natural or synthetic, that is applied to pants to modulate their growth and development
What is phototropism?
The observation of how plants move and grow in response to light direction
Phototrophism initiated a series of experiments over nearly 50 years that led to the discovery of what?
Describe what Charles Darwin and his son, Francis Darwin's phototropism experiment discovered
Initial experiments established that apices of seedling shoots is where light is perceived
Describe what Peter Boysen-Jensen phototropism experiment discovered
Established that a water-soluble chemical is responsible for moving from the meristem into the lower stem to induce the phototropism (bending) effect
Describe what Frits Went phototropism experiment discovered
Isolate chemical and found that growth effects were inducible with the chemical, even without light
What is the first discovered and most common natural form of auxins?
Indole 3-acetic acid (IAA)
Auxin is produced in what?
Seed embryos, buds, young flowers and in shoot apical meristem
What are the major activities/effects/functions of auxin?
Stimulates cell expansion all over the plant, induces toor primary growth and root branching, promotes differentiation/specialization of vascular tissues and exerts and maintains apical dominance
What can be done for auxin to induce root primary growth and root branching?
Apply auxin to curing to induce root growth
How does auxin exert and maintain apical dominance?
Prevents axially bud growth and branching near stem branching tips
What are examples of synthetic auxins?
2,4-D and 2,4,5-T
What does 2,4-D stimulate?
Growth in low concentrations
2,4-D is herbicidal in what concentrations
Higher causing too much cell expansion
Bad for human health and is agent orange (1:1)
Gibberellic Acids or GA
How were Gibberellins discovered?
"Foolish Seedling Disease" of Rice caused by Gibberlla Fujikuroi
What is Gibberella fujikuroi?
There are about how many known natural forms of Gibberellins?
What are Gibberellins produced in?
Seed embryos, young shoots and flowers
What are the major activities/effects/functions of gibberellins?
Promotes/stimulates cell division and elongation in shoots, stimulate flower and cone development and application during early fruit development
The promotion/stimulation of cell division and elongation of shoots by gibberellins is most effective in with?
The promotion/stimulation of cell division and elongation of shoots by gibberellins increases what?
Application during early development by gibberellins allows larger fruits to be spaced
Cytokinins are produced in
Roots and germinating seeds
What are some of the major activities/effects/functions of cytokinins?
Promote cell division all over the plant, delay aging and death of vegetative organs and tissues, and stimulates branching and shoot primary growth
The stimulation of branching and shoot apical growth by cytokinins is regulated in?
Apical dominance by auxin
Abscisic Acid (ABA)
The "conservative hormone" and is thought to be the costal agent for leaf and fruit drop
Where is abscisic acid produced or found in?
Mature leaves, roots, fruits, seed before germination
What are some of the major/activities/effects/functions of abscisic acid
Induces and maintain seed dormancy, induces guard cells to close during drought or high temperatures, influences the rate and level/amount go water and sugar movement into fruits and seeds
C2H4 a single molecule which is a gas
Where did the expression, "one bad apple spoils the whole barrel" come from?
Stress from ripening or damage causes ethylene is released which is then absorbed by neighboring fruits. This stimulates them to produce ethylene
Ethylene is produced in
all living plant tissue
What are some major activities/effects/functions of ethylene
Induce fruit ripening, bruising/injury, stimulate leaf and fruit drop and accumulates when plants encounter a physical barrier
Induced fruit ripening by ethylene is most common in what plant?
Ethylenes doesn't ripen what two fruits faster?
Grapes and strawberries
Maintain by high auxin levels and low cytokinin levels in axillary buds
In apical dominance, when the auxin source is removed, or naturally decreases, whet growth occurs?
Axillary bud growth
What promotes leaf/fruit abscission?
When prevents leaf/fruit abscission?
Auxin and cytokinin
Aging/maturity leading to cell/tissue growth
What promotes senescence?
What promotes seed dormancy?
What prevents germination?
Germination must be diluted or washed out by what?
What promotes germination?
Gibberellins, auxin and cytokinins
The loss of water vapor from plant tissue via stomata
Why is transpiration necessary for most plants?
Maintain water movement in the plant and cooling effect as water is lost (heat loss)
What conditions would results in higher transpiration rates?
Hot/dry ("low humidity")/windy
When stomata are open and water vapors escapes from leaves (and some green stems) the water potential inside those leaves beings to
Potential energy of water
How is water potential calculated?
By accounting for physical pressure of water and concentration of solutes in and around cells
Pressure that results from water absorption or movement from one cell or tissue to another
Turgor pressure is usually positive in living cells where the pressure is
exerted against cell walls
Water diffuses down a water potential gradient from
high to low water potential
Because water potential declines in tissues from which water vapor is being lost, water is "pulled" into those tissues from adjacent tissues that have
A higher water potential
This "pull", or tension, extends back into the
xylem tissue of the leaf and down through the xylem of the stems and the roots
Water can be pulled from the soil into the roots and up through the plant because of its
The pull of water in plants is made possible by what?
A high transpiration rate will result in
more water being absorbed from the soil and moved through the plant, as long as water is available
The success of developing plants is dependent on
Utilizing resources and responding to environment mental signals
Growth response to a directional stimulus
Growth response to light
Growth response to solar position
What is negatively gravitropic?
What is positively gravitropic?
Why are we now testing this unreduced gravity environments?
Changes in water potential that dramatically increase or decrease turgor in specific tissues are responsible for a number of plant organ
Many of these changes occur as a result of an
environmental stimulus or a combination of stimuli
What are some examples of turgor movements?
Vinus fly trap, Mimosa leaves folding in response to touch
Changes in turgor movements are also partially responsible for some "sleep movements" in what plants
Shamrocks, Beans reorient leaves at night, Mimosa leaflet close at night
Sleep movements and other regularly timed events occur due to
internal "biological clock" mechanisms
Plants can generate energy in the form of ___ molecules in a number of different metabolic pathways.
The most productive of this is
Cellular respiration result in the net production of __ molecules of ATP as well as the controlled release of heat
Another pathway, though less productive in terms of ATP production, is
Aerobic respiration inputs
Sugar and oxygen
Aerobic respiration products
CO2, H2O and 36 ATP
CO2, ethanol and 2 ATP
What happens in plant fermentation?
2 3-carbon sugars (6 carbon sugars) each produce CO2 and ethanol which each produce 1 ATP
Beverages which are produced by fermenting plant materials (by yeast and/or other fungi)
Beer, wine, Kombucha, moonshine, Bourbon, Vodka, and Gin
Undergoes a second fermentation
Tea (using a scabby) symbiotic colony of bacteria and yeast
less than 8% corn unaged
Moonshine and bourbon
Grains but must be flavored with juniper cone "berries"
Foods produced by fermenting plant materials (by yeast and/or other fungi)
Vinegar, chocolate, Kimchi/sour kraut, Miso/Tempeh/Soy sauce/fermented tofu and tabasco
Acetic acid bacteria
Miso/Tempeh/Sou Sauce/Fermented Tofu
Starch is digested to
Cellulose is digested to
Glucose is fermented by fungi to
Why are specialized metabolites produced?
Protection and defense, chemical attractants and plant-plant competition
Where do specialized metabolites come from?
From intermediate molecules
How are specialized metabolites made?
Produced from photosynthesis and respiration
All derived from the amino acid phenylalamine
Lignin, tannins, anthocyanin, tetrahydrocannabinol, salicylic acid, urushiol, allelopathic chemicals
Secondary cell wall structure
Bitter, stored in vacuoles
Red, purple, pink and attracts pollinators and seed dispersers
What phenolics make up antioxidants?
Tannins and anthocyanin
Flavonols belong to what phenolic group?
What are examples of flavonols?
Cacao and green teas
Psychoactive and CBD
Poison ivy, cashew family, "sumac"
Jug lones in walnut trees
(Terpenes) most diverse group which is usually pungent (aroma/flavor) or extremely bitter
Terpenoids are made from __-carbon units
Conifer "Scent" and resin, essential oils, natural ribber, accessory pigments and taxol
Conifer "scent" and resin
Mint family, limonene, tea tree and eucalyptus
mints, basil, rosemary, sage, thyme and lavender
Citrus, outer fruit wall
From milky latex of Hevea brasiliensis
What does the milky latex become?
It is vulcanized to become Islamic latex-mixture of terpenes which is often milky in appearance
What is an example of natural rubbers?
Chemotheraputic mechanism from the pacific yew
They're alkaline, high in pH
Where are alkaloids produced?
In about 25% of all species which are often bitter and common to solanaceae
Examples of alkaloids?
Caffeine, atropine, morphine, codeine, papaverine, cocaine, confine, mescaline, nicotine and strychnine
Stimulant found in about 80 species such as coffee, cacao, tea and kola nut
source of caffeine and some flavoring in soft drinks historically
From members of the solanacease and is a tranquilizer
What group of alkaline induces pupil dilation?
Atropine; belladonna (nightshade family)
What is often in cough syrup
What groups make up opiate alkaloids?
Morphine, codeine and papaverine
Opiate alkaloids become ____ which then become ___
analgesics; pain killers and depressants
Stimulant and anesthetic
Motor neuron inhibitor which inhibits one's ability to breath
What is the most potent plant poison
Coniine is found in what plant
Psychoactive in peyote cactus
Stimulant and depressant
"Rat poison" which induces vomiting
Sugar containing compounds that, on creation with specific enzymes, release hydrogen cyanide
What does cyanogenic glycosides arrest in cells?
Electron transport which affects cellular respiration
Where are compounds stored in cyanogenic glycosides?
Where are activating enzymes located in cyanogenic glycosides?
What makes up the cyanogenic glycosides?
Members of the rose family
Cherries, apricot, roses, apples seeds, hydrangeas
What type of cyanogenic glycoside shouldn't be planted near water?
Study of organism interaction with the environment and each other
Ecology is studied at multiple levels, ranging in scope
Population, species, community, ecosystem, landscape
Group of species living in one area that have the potential to interact physically and chemically
What are some basic properties of communities?
Diversity, characteristic species, trophic structure and when disturbed, community will return at some point to a similar composition over time
Organisms that compose it
usually prominent because occur frequently
When disturbed, community will return at some point to
a similar composition over time
Number of different species present
Number of individuals within a given area and/or accounting for that physical footprint
Relative abundance of a species
Number of individuals of a species compared to others that are present
How to calculate relative abundance of a species
number of individuals of species/total number of individuals in the population
Difficult to define, but usually high richness with high relative abundance of many species
How is community composition measured most often?
Representative snapshot of composition that are indicative of larger area
Abiotic factors are very important in assessing community composition and change and include
Soil type, humidity, geology, temperature, precipitation, sun exposure, altitude/elevation, pollutants, slope, fire
Communities together with abiotic factors which may be large or small in scale
Largest scale of organization and is based on trend in climate, plant composition and topography which can be regional or global
What biome do we live in?
Temperate deciduous forest
Larger term that describes many species with low population numbers
Has potential to become endangered throughout most or all of its growth range
How many threatened species are there in North Carolina?
How many plant species are there in North Carolina
Example of threatened species in North Carolina
Venus fly trap, mountain golden heather, seabeach amaranth
Has potential to be extinct throughout most or all of the growth range
How many endangered plant species are there in North Carolina?
Examples of endangered species in North Carolina
Sandhills fire lily, rough lead loose strife, pixie moss
Photosynthetic organisms known as autotrophs
convert light energy to chemical energy
Obtain chemical energy though heterotrophy
Most energy is ___ as it moves up the trophic levels of an ecosystem
Producers convert light energy into chemical energy, which is subsequently lost more and more
up through the food chain
How do we typically measure this in chemical energy
About of living matter in an ecosystem or other measurable area
Primary productivity is the rate at which
producers build biomass
Primary productivity is the highest in
algal beds/tropical rain forest
Primary productivity is the lowest in
open ocean/desert scrub
Damage to communities or ecosystems, at least temporarily, that may hinder or destroy organisms and/or alter resources availability
Examples of disturbances
Fire, lightning, pollution, disease/pathogens, flooding, hurricanes, high winds, human activity, volcanoes
What was one the believed thought on communities and disturbance?
Communities were relatively stable over long periods of time. It was assumed that disturbances were irregular and that communities return to their original composition and have long periods stability and normalcy
Ordered profession of changes in a community's composition with progression toward a climax community that is typical of that biome
Occurs where there is no soil present/no previous plants
Examples of primary succession
Receding glaciers exposing rock faces, volcanic rock, soil that is scraped to bedrock, rooftop
Occurs where there is soil/previous plant communities that were disturbed
Examples of secondary succession
Abandoned crop field, catastrophic forest fire, hurricane flooded areas, brickyard
Terminal group of species that dominate a community which leads to the end of succession
Routine disturbance often prevents a community from reaching its
terminal climax state
Without fire, some grassland would succeed into
Some major causes of biodiversity loss
Habitat destruction, introduction of invasive species, Over collecting/over harvesting
What are ways in which humans contribute to habitat destruction
Pollution (acidification of water and soil, salinization (road brine), deforestation, ditching and draining
What are examples of introduced invasive species
Kudzu, crabgrass, Japanese stilt grass, Mimosa
What does the APHIS of the USDA do?
Plant quarantine requirements and establish criteria for invasiveness
Example of overcorrecting/over harvesting
American gin sent, Venus fly trap, rare orchids
Removing plant biomass contributes to global accumulation of
Increased warming will affect rainfall in much of the wolf, which will kill plants that rely on a lot of water uptake, even ___ and ____ species that have adapted to withstand hotter and/or drier conditions
C4 and CAM
Reduced plant and algal biomass will ultimately impact
food resources for consumers, the amount of available oxygen in ecosystems and will likely select for or against certain plant species
What organisms are the bases for all food chains?
How energy is lost (cumulatively) in a food chain's succession of consumption
Stages fo Succession generally in North Carolina Piedmont
1. Pioneer species, which may include crabgrass, horse weed
2. Perennial hers and grasses: asters, broomsedge, ragweed
3. Pines and softwoods
4. Hardwood species last
Invasive species are usually
non-native, have a very fast reproduction rate and no natural predators
Removing plant biomass can potentially increase the
warming effect, which further impacts plants
first name and always italicized
Second part of scientific name. always italicized
third part of the scientific name. NOT italicized
Poaceae (Grass Family) [monocot]
turf, corn, wheat, barley, oat rice, sugarcane (veins run in the same direction
Liliaceae (Lily Family) [monocot]
Lily, onion, tulips, hyacinths
Araceae (Palm Family) [monocot]
Oil, palm, coconut
Solanaceae (Nightshade Family) [dicot]
Potato, petunia, tobacco, eggplant, pepper, tomato
Rosaceae (Rose Family) [dicot]
strawberry, apple, peach, pear, cherry
Fabaceae (Legume Family) [dicot]
Penuts, beans, peas, clover, alfalfa
Cucurbitaceae (squash family) [dicot]
Approximately how many living plant species have been identified?
List two plants from which oil production is important.
Sun flower, safflower, olive, coconut, peanut, canola (rapeseed), almond
Using the lines below, briefly summarize some of the historical origins of botany
Plants were used before recorded history nearly 60,000 years ago in Iraq. Medicines are dyes were used in the Neanderthal Era (30,000 years). Asia recorded of use well before Europe where plants were used for medical properties. In greek and roman cultures plants there are recorded observations of the natural world.
A place where collected plant specimens are preserved and stored is called a
Describe one function of a herbarium
Research centers, teaching resources and extension reference
Describe two methods that are used to preserve plant specimens for long-term storage
Chemical fixation which uses alcohol/formaldehyde and a press which presses the plant in a plant press, dry and mount on herbaria paper
What should be done in order to enter new finding into the botanical record?
Have a proper description published and circulated, names that conforms to ICN and obtain and preserved a voucher specimen that serves as the type for that species
List three elements which are micronutrients
Cobalt, copper, Boron
List any three elements that are macronutrients
P, K, N, S, Ca, Mg (Is)
Why are certain elements classified as micronutrients?
They make up .5% of the mass, but still are important
The vast majority of a plant's mass can be accounted for by three principal structural elements. From what two environmentally available chemical compounds are these elements derived?
Carbon dioxide and water
What are the three principal structural elements (not nutrients) that account for the majority of plant mass?
Carbon, hydrogen and oxygen; About 96% plant mass
Rank the microscopes used in lab by their magnification
Compound microscope (1) Stereomicroscope (2) Hand Lens (3)
Which of the microscopes you used to observe cellular structures at the highest resolution?
Which macromolecule has the highest caloric content per gram
Which macromolecule's primary elemental composition is CHONP; DNA and RNA
Cellulose and maltose are examples of which macromolecules
Some are these macromolecules are enzymes that catalyze reaction and may facilitate transport
These macromolecules are detectable with iodine when stored in amyloplasts
The base unit of these macromolecules are amino acids, of which there are 20 types
This macromolecule was stained by Sudan IV, significant quantities in walnuts
True or False: Fatty acids chains of membrane lipid molecules can be considered unsaturated as long as they have at least one double-bond between two adjacent carbon atoms, creating a bend in the chain's strucutre
The endosymbiotic there states that two specific plant organelles in fact be the result of an ancient symbiosis between a host cell and two different types of bacteria. These organelles are
Mitochondria and chloroplasts
There are multiple lines of modern evidence about these organelles (that apply to both) and overall cellular function that have been used to support this theory. Identify what these lines of evidence are
They have their own DNA genome, They have high specialized metabolic activities (photosynthesis, respiration)
The primary wall is principally composed of what abundant polysaccharide?
What is the component of the secondary cell wall that gives it it hardness/toughness?
Regulate gass exhage and water loss in the cell
Material between plants cells which is composed of pectin. Present no matter what type of cell wall
Minings in cell walls usually between dead cells. Frequently former locations of plasmodesmata
Storage of pigment of the plant
Cytoplasmic connections between living plant cells. Allow for small molecule transport. Is selective and have proteins that controls what moves between cells. Usually forms at cell division
Mostly composed of isodiametric in shape
Cells found in the meristems/mother of all cell types
Primary wall us unevenly thickened for structural reinforcement, occur just ender the epidermis
Have a primary and secondary cell wall
Living at maturity
Parenchyma and collenchyma
Fibers are these
Sieve tube elements
Components of phloem and connected end-on-end by plates with a large number of plasmodesmata; cells through which most sugar transport occurs
Components of the phloem and control sieve tube element function
Dead at maturity; Component of the phloem; connected end-on-end by plates with a large number of plasmodesmata; cells through which most sugar transport occurs
Component of the phloem; Have pits that allow for side-to-side transport; dead at maturity
component of the xylem; dead at maturity; have pits which allow for side-to-side transport
Component of the xylem and phloem
What are the three tissue systems
Dermal, vascular, ground
List two complex tissue types or specialized cell types that belong to the dermal system
List two complex tissue types or specialized cell types that belong to the vascular system
Xylem and phloem
List two complex tissue types or specialized cell types that belong to the ground system
Mesophyll and cortex
True or False: Intercalary meristems occur at the bases of grass leaves and contribute to primary growth of the leaf blade (broad part of the leaf)
Briefly describe a possible reason for the evolution of intercalary meristem
The meristem evolved to move down to prevent the irradiation of the species every time it was grazed on
Some angiosperms are globally important food sources. Six plants account for 80% of the world's calorie supply:
Corn, Rice, Wheat, Potato, Sweet Potato and Cassava (root)
Describe one environmental condition/factor that may stimulate the transition of a seed from dormancy to germination
Temperature, day length change, smoke compounds/heat from fire, injury/abrasion/nicking of seed coat, hormone levels
The carbohydrate that is most commonly transported long distances in plants is
Cellulose is a
Name an invasive species that is commonly found in North Carolina
If seed nutrient storage is not cotyledonous, it is usually what
Endosperm; seen in corn
The oldest germinating seed is from the Judean Date Palm. About how old was the seed when it germinated in 2005?
2,000 years old
The light reactions take place in and across the membranes of structures called ____. These structures are grouped together as grans within chloroplasts.
The primary photosynthetic pigment in chloroplasts is
A structurally related pigment, ___, also absorbs light and transfers energy to the primary pigment above
Multiple pigment molecules cluster together to form ______, each of which are composed of light harvesting complexes and a reaction center.
_____ are pigments that reflect excess light and protect the other photosynthetic pigments in the plant cells.
____ are the typical type of these pigments and are typically yellow-orange in color.
Photosynthesis is most active in what two color ranges of the visible light spectrum?
red and blue
List two factors that could negatively impact the efficiency of the light reactions.
1. Extremely high temperatures can cause proteins to denature drastically declining the photosynthesis rate
2. Light quantity can negatively impact light reactions because if the intensity is too high, the rate of photosynthesis can decrease
The Calvin cycle takes place in the ___ of the chloroplasts
Describe the Calvin cycle
Fixation: 3 CO2 is used to fix 3 5-Carbon compounds to 6 3-Carbon compounds (3-PGA.
Reduction: 6 ATP is used to convert 6 3-Carbon compounds (3-PGA) to 6 3-Carbon compounds (G3P). This 6 3-carbon compounds is converted into 1 3-carbon compound which is the precursor to glucose.
Regeneration: The 5 remaining 3-carbon compounds (G3P) uses 3 ATP to convert into 3- 5 Carbon compounds
What is the final step of calvin cycle
Regeneration of the 5-Carbon compound
True or False: All plants have the calvin cycle
The enzyme that facilitates the fixation of carbon and the synthesis of 3-carbon compounds in the Calvin cycle is ____, which is also the most redundant protein on the planet.
Rubisco also interacts with ____ to ultimately produce 2 3-carbon compounds during photorespiration
True or False: Photorespiration is an energy efficient mechanism to put carbon into the Calvin cycle becasuse it produces more ATP
Plants with this fixation mechanism are adapted to thrive in tropical or desert conditions
Guard cells open stomata at night only, when CO2 diffuses in and water loss is minimized
CO2 is initially fixed into a 4-carbon compound
CAM and C4
CO2 diffuses from the air into mesophyll cells and is directly fixed into the Calvin cycle by Rubisco
Potential for photorespiration is low to zero because CO2 is concentrated spatially in bundle sheath cells, where the Calvin cycle occurs
Example include orchids, pineapple and cacti
Most abundant in terms of percentage of plant species diversity
Most likely to undergo photorespiration during the drought or heat stress
Dicots have a ring present with a
What are the four tissues that would constitute the stele of a monocot root
Pericycle, xylem, phloem and pith
Lateral roots initiates where
Dicots typically have what type of venation?
The type of movement of water and minerals that occurs in space between cells and along cell walls
True or False: Water movement must become symplastic are the endodermis because of the hydrophobic Caspian strip
Mychorrhizae assets plants in the uptake of what essential element
The type of mycorrhizae that grow inside of plant cells are
Rhizobia are a group of ____ that also form symbiotic association with some plants and assist in the fixation of what macronutrient element from the atmosphere?
Other than venation, complexity and arrangement, name one morphological feature of leaves we discussed that could be used to describe them
The tallest tree on record is what type of plant?
About how tall is the tallest tree
The oldest living individual plant on record is what type of plant?
Name one type of carnivorous plant other than the Venus fly trap
List one of the two lateral meristems in woody dicot plants and write down the tissue it produces
Vascular cambium which produces secondary xylem and phloem
Types of wood that no longer conducts water and minerals is
Trees that do not have vessels and fibers in their xylem are often referred to as
"Wood" and "bark are two general terms used to describe the tissues of woody stems. What tissues comprise wood
Vascular cambium and secondary xylem and phloem
List any one specific structural modification that plants living in arid/dry conditions might possess
Yam family, monocot
Morning glory family, dicot
Nightshade family, dicot
Organisms causing "red tide"; cell walls resemble armor plating or scales
Likely the closest algal relatives to land plants, with some body forms nodal; stoneworts
Prokaryotic; some may fix nitrogen; some produce potent toxins
Grooved walls embedded with silicon, making them extraordinarily ornate and light reflective
Have chlorophyll a; members include elaborate, unicellular dismiss that have a central constriction
Unicellular, having multiple life stage forms; some producing toxins, distinct flagella
Produce distinct pigment called phycobilin, which increases light absorption capacity in deeper water
Used in road pain, toothpaste during the 19th century, water filters, and as a natural insecticide "dust"
Sea grasses; some of the largest thalloid algae, growing up to 900ft in length; alginate production
Products derived from this group include Nori, used for sushi, agar, and the food thickener carrageenan
Describe any two significant properties, ecological feature/services, or human uses of mosses
They have no vascular tissue or seeds. They also require moist environments due to sperm needing water to swim to fertilize eggs
Correspondingly, describe one significant properties, ecological feature/servinces, or human uses of Ferns (not their allies) other than "decoration" or "house plants"
Fiddleheads in some species are edible
Male pine cones release what stem cell-producing structures that have air sacs
Name a gymnosperm group or organism that is NOT a conifer
List any two uses of (any group of) gymnosperms. Be sure to state the gymnosperm group or organism too are referencing for each
Red Cedar - "Berries" are used to flavor gin
Douglas fir - Largest fir used in construction
Lichens are symbiotic associations between cyanobacteria and
Meiosis results in the production of spores
Angiosperm, gymnosperm, ferns and mosses
Gametophyte is anchored by rhizoid
Ferns and mosses
Reproduce by seeds
Angiosperms and gymnosperms
Vascular tissue is present
Angiosperms, gymnosperms and ferns
Produce separate male and female gametophytes
Angiosperms, gymnosprms and mosses
Sporophyte is the dominant generation
Angiosperms, gymnosperms and ferns
Have swimming sperm cells, requiring water
Ferns and mosses
Sporophyte is completely dependent on gametophyte/both generations can be observed at once
What process occurs in the yellow sporangia at the tip ends of the stem branches in whisk ferns
The function of the petal is to
What is the function of the sepal?
Protect the other whorls as they develop
Pollination is specifically defined as the transfer of pollen from the
anther to the stigma
Flower ovaries contain ovule. After fertilization, ovules will develop into ____ and the mature ovary will thicken and develop into a ____
By definition, dioecious plants must have flowers that are
imperfect and incomplete
True or False: Perfect flowers are always complete
True or False: An inflorescence is a group of flowers that are clustered closely together in a specific pattern (sunflower)
Pineapple and Sweetgum are examples; produced from several flowers close together
Berries such as eggplant and tomatoes, and drupes such as olives and coconuts
Simple and fleshy
Split at maturity; soybeans, peas, milkweed pods
Multiple pistils in one flower will produce fruit (blackberry)
Produced from enlargement of receptacle and other non-reproductive floral structures, in addition to ovary enlargement (strawberry)
The generation of female gametes begins within the carpools of a flower, more specifically, in each ovule. A diploid cell in the ovule undergoes ___ to form haploid spores
One of these spores undergoes three rounds of division to ultimately produce the ____, or female gametophyte
One of the cells in the female gametophyte is the ____, the female gamete
The generation of male gametes begins in the ____, where the cells undergo meiosis to produce haploid cells that eventually develop into pollen grains.
These pollen grains are then released. After pollination occurs, a pollen tube grows down into the style and the carpels of the ovary. The entire pollen structure at this point is called the
__ sperm cells are delivered to the female gametophyte.
One fertilized the female gamete, producing a zygote that divides and eventually forms the ____ within the seed
The second sperm cell fuses with two other female gametophyte nuclei to form an initial endosperm cell with ___ copies of DNA
This cell will continue to replicate to form a nutritious endosperm for the seed. The seed is part of the _____ generation of the angiosperm life cycle
What part of the plant is usually harvested to be stored in a germ plasm collection
Explain why it is important to maintain germ plasm collections
Germplasms provide a seed bank for countries to submit samples to as a back up to their individual germ plasm. It provides back up forage in case of a regional or worldwide issue which causes countries to lose their crops
Cassava, Peanut, Cashew, Passion Fruit, Potato
Soybean, banana, coconut, citrus, tea
Coffee, sorghum, barley, yam, one origin of rice okra
Hops, carrot, parsley, asparagus, turnip
Fig, Olive, Pomegranate, Mint, Coriander (cilantro), Saffron
May have leaves arranged in fascicles
Have vessel elements
Plants are classified under multiple phyla
Can produce secondary xylem and phloem
Gymnosperms and angiosperms
May be dioecious
Gymnosperms and angiosperms
The Svalbard Global Seed Vault is located in which country?
How did plants called "scouring rushes" acquire their common name?
They were used as a scour to clean cooking utensils
The type of mosses historically used as fuel sources, including Sphagnum, are:
Name on crop (row crop or edible tree crop) for which the brand geographic center of origin is upper North America:
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