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Required vocabulary for paper 1


The movement of people, involving a change of residence. It can be internal or external (international) and voluntary or forced. It does not include temporary circulations such as commuting or tourism.


Transfers of money/goods by foreign workers to their home countries.

Soil degradation

A severe reduction in the quality of soils. The term includes soil erosion, salinization and soil exhaustion (loss of fertility).

physical water scarcity

where water resource development is approaching or has exceeded unsustainable levels; it relates water availability to water demand and implies that arid areas are not necessarily water scarce

economic water scarcity,

where water is available locally but not accessible for human, institutional or financial capital reasons.

Core and periphery

The concept of a developed core surrounded by an undeveloped periphery. The concept can be applied at various scales.

Ecological footprint

The theoretical measurement of the amount of land and water a population requires to produce the resources it consumes and to absorb its waste under prevailing technology.

Global climate change

The changes in global patterns of rainfall and temperature, sea level, habitats and the incidences of droughts, floods and storms, resulting from changes in the Earth's atmosphere, believed to be mainly caused by the enhanced greenhouse effect.


Gross national income (now used in preference to gross national product—GNP). The total value of goods and services produced within a country together with the balance of income and payments from or to other countries.

Crude Birth Rate

the number of live births yearly per thousand people in a population

natural increase

Crude death rate subtracted from crude birthrate

dependency ratio

The number of people under the age of 15 and over age 64, compares to the number of people active in the labor force.

forced migration

Permanent movement compelled usually by, political / cultural factors.

voluntary migration

Permanent movement undertaken by choice.

Human Development Index (HDI)

Indicator of level of development for each country, constructed by United Nations, combining income (PPP/GNI) literacy with years of schooling, (education), and life expectancy.


the diversity of plant and animal life in a particular habitat (or in the world as a whole)


the ability to meet current needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs


where one resource is substituted for another

anti-natal policy

a policy which encourages the population to have less children.


conservation method in which old materials are processed to make new ones

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