The Hundred Years' War
Review of Lesson 12 pp.348-354
Terms in this set (45)
When did hostilities between England and France begin?
Hostilities between England and France began at the time of the Norman conquest in 1066.
What were the years of the Hundred Years' War and how long did it really last?
The Hundred Years' War was fought from 1337-1453 and it lasted 116 years.
What were the causes of the 100 Years' War?
The causes of the 100 Year War were disagreements over rights to land, a dispute over the succession to the French throne and economic conflicts
What was a "distant" cause of the war?
The duchy of Aquitaine which became part of the holdings of England when Eleanor of Aquitaine married King Henry II of England in 1152. The French wanted to absorb the duchy into the kingdom of France. (it became a disputed territory)
What did the Treaty of Paris of 1259 affirm?
The treaty of Paris of 1259 affirmed the English claims to Aquitaine in exchange for Henry III becoming a vassal of the French crown.
What caused the dispute over the succession to the French throne?
In 1328 Charles IV of France died without leaving any children.This meant that the Carpetian Dynasty would die out.
Who could have been the heir to Charles IV's
Isabella and her son Edward III King of England.
Why did the Nobles put a stop to the ascension of Isabella and her son?
They proclaimed that "no woman or her son could succeed to the French Monarchy"
To what ancient law did the Nobles refer when they prohibited Isabella and Edward III from taking the French throne.
The Nobles referred to the 6th Century law-code of the Franks and that Salic Law was part of the fundamental law of France.
To Whom do the Nobles pass the French crown?
The Nobles passed the French crown to Philip VI of Valois. (a nephew of Philip the Fair)
What did Philip VI do in 1329 that provoked armed conflict between England and France?
He confiscated the Duchy of Aquitaine and gave France full jurisdiction of the Duchy of Aquitaine.
Why did this provoke the English king?
Edward III say this action as a gross violation of the Treaty of Paris of 1259 and he felt that he was the rightful king of France.
How did the governments of England and France manipulate public opinion to support the war.
English people were convinced that King Edward III was unjustly denied the French crown. Edward III sent letters to the sherriffs describing the evil deeds of the French in graphic terms and listing royal needs. Kings in both countries instructed the clergy to deliver sermons with patriotic sentiment. Philip VI sent agents to warn communities about the dangers of invasion and to stress the crown's revenue needs to meet the attack.
English were told that Philip VI meant to seize and slaughter all of England.
This was an early form of nationalism.
What were the economic factors that brought on the war?
The wool trade between England and Flanders served as the cornerstone of both countries economies. Flanders was a fief of the French crown and the Flemish aristocracy was sympathetic to the French crown. However, the wealth of merchants depended on English wool, Flemish burghers strongly supported the claims of Edward III. Disruption of commerce with England threatened their properity.
What were some of the positive aspects of the war?
Poor knights and unemployed knights were promised regular wages. Criminals who enlisted were granted pardons, Great nobles expected to be rewarded with large estates. If victorious the men might keep whatever they seized. (to the victors go the spoils of war)
How did the war begin?
In 1337 when the French made sea raids on English coastal towns.The French fleet was almost completely destroyed when it attempted to land soldiers on English soil.
Where was most of the war fought?
It was fought in France and the Low countries.
Why were the English so successful at Crecy in No. France in 1346?
The English had longbows which were rapid reloading and allowed archer to send off three arrows to every one arrow from the French crossbars.
What was the first use of artillery in the West?
The ring of cannon
What kind of success did the English have?
The English held Aquitaine and several other provinces and allied themselves with many of France's feudal vassals
What did the English King Henry V's victory at Agincourt allow him to do?
King HenryV was able to reconquer Normandy and by 1419 the English advanced to the walls of Paris. Henry married the daughter of the French King and a treaty made Henry and any sons of the couple heir to the French throne.
What happened to Henry V in 1522?
He died suddenly and left only an infant son as an heir.
What was the only major city in Northern France not under the control of the English?
What name did Joan of Arc give herself?
la Pucelle (the maiden)
what happened to Joan of Arc during her adolescence?
She began to hear voices which she later said belonged to St. Michael, st. Catherine and St. Margaret
In 1428, What did these voices tell her?
the voices told her that the Dauphin needed to be crowned Charles VII and that the English needed to be driven out of France.
What happened to Joan before her audience with the Dauphin?
She wore a male disguise for safety, Charles had her questioned about her angelic visions, and examined to make sure that she was a virgen.
What did Joan secure from Charles?
She secured his support to travel with the French army to Orleans dressed as a knight - with armour and sword lent to her by the French army. Charles also dictated a letter to the English demanding that they surrender.
When she inspired and led the french attacks that drove the English out of Orleans, what did Charles VII do?
He made her co-commander of the entire French army
When was Charles VII crowned king of France?
In July 1429 Charles VII was crowned king at Reims.
Who captured Joan of Arc and what did they do to her?
in 1430 the Burgundians captured Joan and sold her to the English.
What did the English charge Joan of Arc with?
They charged her with Heresy.
By whom was the trial conducted
The trial was conducted by Church authorities
About what was she interrogated?
she was interrogated about her angelic voices, and why she wore men's clothing
How did the court rule?
They convicted her of heresy and ordered that she be burned at the stake in the market place at Rouen
After Joan of Arc was put to death, what did Charles VII do?
He requested that Joan of Arc be retried by the Pope who cleared her of all charges and declared her a martyr.
Why is Joan of Arc so important to the French people?
She became a political symbol of France and sometimes also a symbol of the Catholic church in opposition to the government of France. she is a symbol of deep religious piety amd conservative nationalism. She saved the French monarchy. She embodies France.
What was the economic impact of the war.
France: thousands of soldiers and civilians died, hundreds of thousands of acres of rich farmland ruined: the rural economy was ina shambles. war had disrupted trade and the great trade fairs, great reduction in French participation in international commerce.
England: spent huge sum of over 5 million Pounds on the war effort...huge financial loss. Govt. tried to recoup losses by raising taxex on the wool crop....price wool out of the export market.
What were the benefits of the war?
War stimulated technological experimentation: artillery. Cannons revolutionized warfare, strengthened the military power of the national states.
What was the impact on the political and cultural life>?
It stimulated the development of the English Parliament, deliberative practices developed that laid the foundations for representative instutions of modern democratic nations.
How were the two houses of Parliament formed?
Knights and wealthy urban residents "commons" began to meet apart from the great lords.
What great power did the "commons:" have?
The "Commons" held the country;s purse strings....Parliamentary Statute of 1341 required parliamentary approval of all nonfeudal levies.
In signing the Parliamentary Statute of 1341 what did Edward III acknowledge?
The king of England could not tax without Parliamentary consent.
Why did a national representative assembly fail to develop in France?
Linguistic, geographical, economic and legal and political differences were very strong. Provincial assemblies (loved their independence It was expensive and would raise taxes, Initiative for convening assemblies rested with the king. Charles VI did not like the idea of representative assemblies.
What did the war promote in both countries?
The war promoted the growth of nationalism.
Nationalism is the feeling of unity and identity that binds a people together.
French nationalism demanded the expulsion of the enemy not only from Normandy and Aquitaine but from all french soil.