Adolescent Psy class

unjustified negative attitude toward a individual because of their group membership
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Terms in this set (145)
An adolescent who attributes difficulty in a task to their own lack of ability is exhibiting what type of motivational orientation?Helpless orientationIs anxiety an example of an internalizing or externalizing problem?InternalizingWhat type of media do male adolescents spend more time using compared to female adolescents?Video games or YoutubeIs anorexia nervosa more likely in high or low SES adolescents?highDO adolescents with better social skills generally have higher or lower academic achievement?HigherIf an adolescent from a _________ SES background experiences a developmental problem, it is more likely to be internalized than externalized.highThe amount of violence viewed on TV as an adolescent has been related to the seriousness of _______ ________ as an adult.criminal actsMajor depressive disorder is characterized by experiencing a major depressive episode that lasts at least ______ weeks.twoThroughout adolescence, the likelihood of being employed _______.increasesT/F: individuals who have risk factors for a certain developmental problem are guaranteed to develop that problem.FalseAdolescent exposure to violence via which type of media is associated with lower sensitivity to real-life violence?Video gamesDo rates of attempted suicides increase, decrease, or remain the same rom childhood to adolescence?IncreaseWhat is the term used to describe the action of delaying or postponing something?procrastinationAccording to biopsychosocail approach, the contribution of genetics to a developmental problem would be classed as which type of factor?BiologicalAre high or low SES parents more likely to use physical punishment to discipline their children?lowWhat is the most frequent substance used by high school seniors?cigarettesAre adolescents more or less likely than children to engage in social comparison?MoreT/F: Less than half of adolescents report having experienced racial hassle.FalseT/F: High- SES neighborhoods are associated with higher rates of adolescent substance abuse.TrueWhich of the four main parenting styles has been linked with heavy alcohol use by adolescents?AuthoritarianHas alcohol use by adolescents increased or decreased since the 1980s and 1990s?DecreasedName one thing that parents in collectivist cultures tend to value in their adolescents, compared to parents in individualistic cultures.Connection to family/ close relationships/ larger group, respect and obedienceWhat is the name the type of culture that emphasizes personal goals and achievement?Individualistic cultuersWhat is an example of an individual- level factor that influences how resilient individuals are to stressful experiences?Good intellectual functioning, sociable, easy- going, high self-esteem, faithT/F: Intrinsic motivation is higher when students don't have the opportunity to make choices.Falsetendency to favor one's own group over anotherethnocentrismThere is a negative relationship between TV time and achievement. According to the displacement theory, wha is the explanation for this relationship?TV takes time away from academic tasksWhat is the name of the type of program the is often implemented to better connect school and employment?Work-based learningIdentify one of the two major developmental trends in coping seen form childhood to adolescence.increase in coping capacities or improvement in use of different coping strategiesWhen individuals believe their qualities can change and improve through effortgrowth mindsetThere is a negative relationship between TV time and achievement. According to the interference theory, what is the explanation for this relationship?TV distracts from cognitive tasks like homeworkWhat is the name for the phenomenon where people experience negative consequences from contact with a distinct cultural group?Acculturative stressWhat is a student most likely to experience in response to a task in which they perceive their own skill level to be low, and perceive the task itself to be highly challenging?AnxietyT/F: Boys with criminal records at 16 tend to have higher levels of testosteronetrueWhat is the difference between acute and chronic stressors?Acute are sudden or short term, chronic are long-lastinga dimension of culture based on cultural heritage, national characteristics, race, religion and languageEthnicityWhat is the most common illicit drug used by US adolescents?marijuanaLow scores on which personality dimension are associated with substance abuse in adolescence?ConscientiousnessWhich of popularity or desire to achieve social dominance is associated with lower academic achievement?Desire to achieve social dominanceIf parents have high expectations for their adolescent, are the adolescent's own expectations for themselves more likely to be low or high?highWhich of the four major parenting styles is associated with the most risky behavior online?IndulgentT/F: If someone quits smoking, their risk of developing lung cancer is reduced to the level of someone who has never smoked cigarettesFalseCompared to females, males are more comfortable _______-_______ online.self-disclosingIs problem-focused or emotion-focused coping associated with more positive outcomes after a stressful experience?Problem-focused copingT/F: There is no difference in the proportion of single mother and married partner families who live in poverty in the US.False (much higher in single mother families)Are American parents more or less likely than asian parents to attribute their children's academic achievement to innate ability?MoreCompared to American teachers, do asian teachers spend more time teaching math or science?MathWhich of the two main types of motivation is based on factors like curiosity, personality, and effort?IntrinsicVideo games can have positive impacts on adolescents through improvement of ________ skills.VisuospatialWhich combination of mastery, performance, an helpless motivational orientations is associated with the greatest student success?Mastery and performance orientationsWhat is the term used to describe a vague, highly unpleasant feeling of fear and apprehension?Anxietybased on internal factors such as self determination, curiosity, challenge, and effortintrinsic motivationinvolves external incentives such as rewards and punishmentsextrinsic motivationRegarding intrinsic/ extrinsic motivation, what does the humanistic and cognitive approaches stress?The importance of intrinsic motivation and achievement. ex: studying hard because of work ethic instead of the reward of a good gradeWhat is intrinsic motivation linked to?academic achievement in high-schoolersWhat is extrinsic motivation linked to?more negative achievement outcomes, less independent motivation, and less persistence on achievement tasksWhen are students more motivated to learn?-given choices -become absorbed in challenges matching skill -receive rewards that have informational value but not used for controlWhen does Intrinsic motivation increases?When students have the opportunity to make choices and take responsibility for their learningSome one who has a perceived low level of their own skill and low level of challenge?ApathySomeone who has a perceived low level of their own skill and high level of challenge?AnxietySomeone who has a perceived high level of their own skill and a low level of challenge?BoredomSomeone who has a perceived high level of their own skill and a high level of challenge?FlowWhen does Flow occur?-develop a sense of mastery -absorbed in a state of concentration while engaged -take on challenges they find neither difficult or easyadolescents who are task-oriented; instead of focusing on ability, they concentrate on learning strategies and the process of achievement rather than the outcomeMaster orientationadolescents who seem trapped by the experience of difficulty and attribute that difficulty to lack of abilityHelpless orientationa focus on winning, rather than on achievement outcomesPerformance orientationIndividuals believe that their qualities are carved in stone and cannot changefixed mindsetIndividuals believe their qualities can change and improve through their effortGrowth mindsetthe belief that one can master a situation and produce favorable outcomesself-efficacyWhat did Dweck and her colleagues find out about mindset?Growth mindset can prevent negative stereotypes from undermining achievementWhat is correlated with high self-efficacy?adolescents have higher academic aspirations, spend more time doing homework, and are more likely to associate learning activities with optimal experiencebeliefs about how well they will do on upcoming tasksExpectations of students successWhat are three aspects of ability beliefs regarding expectations?1. Students beliefs about how good they are at a particular activity 2. How good they are in comparison to others 3. How good they are in relation to their performance in other activitiesAdolescents benefit when both parents and teachers...?Have high expectations for them and provide support.T/F Parents often attempt to protect children and adolescents self esteem by setting low standardsTrueWhat are characteristics of a good planner?-manage time effectively -set priorities -organizedintention to accomplish something meaningful to one's self and to contribute something to the world beyond the selfpurposethe action of delaying or postponing somethingprocrastinationa vague, highly unpleasant feeling of fear and apprehensionanxietyToday ___-___% of adolescents are employed at some point during school.80-90What is the most common type of work for adolescents?1. retail stores 2. work in restaurantsPotential negatives for working-limited developmental benefits -Associated with risky behavior for some -Less potential time for academic work or social interactionsPotential positives for working-encourages responsibility and self- efficacy -experience constructive supervision by adults -can involve positively challenging activitiesWhat percent work during college full time?41What percent work part time during college?80The behavior, patterns, beliefs and all other products of a specific group of people that are passed on from generation to generationculturevaluing personal goals, self- values, personal achievementindividualismvalues that serve the group, preserving group integrity by subverting personal goals/ desirescollectivismCeremonies/rituals that mark an individuals transition from one status to anotherrites of passageA group of people with similar occupational, educational, and economic characteristicssocioeconomic statusWhat is considered low SES?low income, working class, blue collarwhat is considered middle SES?middle income, managerial, white- collarWhat is considered upper SES?high income, high classParenting style of low SES?-authority clear -physical punishment more common -parents are more willing to sacrifice for their child to achieve -concerned about children meeting societal standardsParenting style of high SES?-concerned about developing child's initiative -more open dialogue between parent and child -less likely to use physical punishmentdimension of culture based on cultural heritageethnicityHow long do 15-18-year-olds use media per day?8hrsHow long do 11-14 year olds use media per week?60 hoursT/F: Girls spend more time on social networking sites and musictrueT/F: Boys spend more time on video games and you tubetrueWhat conclusion did the cross cultural study have on violent screen time?more violent screen media= more aggressionWhat are some negative outcomes of video games?-more aggressive -less sensitive to real-life violence -less prosocial behavior and empathyWhat are some positive outcomes from video games?-improved visuospatial skills -Prosocial games are associated with real-life prosocial behaviorTV distracts from cognitive tasksinterferenceTV takes time away from academic tasksDisplacementTV captures attention with things that are more interesting than schoolworkSelf-defeating tastes/ preferencesEmphasizes the interaction between biological, psychological, and social factors in producing problemsBiopsychosocial approachWhat are some biological factors on the biopsychosoial approach?-focuses on genes, puberty, hormones, brain processes -Problems believed to by caused by some bodily malfunctionExamples of Biological factors in the biopsychosocial approach: 1.Early maturation in girls-> 2. Early development of amygdala + late development of prefrontal cortex=1. drug abuse, depression, delinquency 2. risk- taking, sensation seekingWhat are some psychological factors in the biopsychosocial approach?personality, decision making, and self- control skills, sense of identifyWhat are some examples of the psychological factors of the biopsychosocial approach?-positive identity development linked with healthy adjustment and academic performance -low conscientiousness associated with substance abuse and conduct problems -low self- control associated with substance abuse and delinquent actWhat are some social factors to the biopsychosocial approach?-important influences including family, romantic relationships, peers, schools, and SESWhat are some social factor examples for the biopsychosocial approach?-peer rejection associated with emotoinal problems -unwanted breakups linked with depressionfocuses on describing and exploring the developmental pathways of of problemsDevelopmental psychopathology approachWhat are risk factors of the developmental psychopathology approach?-predispose children to development problemsWhat are some protective factors of the developmental psychopathology approach-help to shield children from developing problemsWhat are some developmental cascades to the developmental psychopathology approach?-high levels of coercive parenting linked to antisocial behavior in adolescents -This leads to negative peer and social interactions -leads to further antisocial behaviorsudden events or stimuli stressorsacutelong-lasting stressorschronicthe response of individuals to stressors, circumstances and events that threaten them and take their coping abilitesstressT/F: Males are more likely to respond to stressors with "fight or flight"trueT/F: Females are more likely to mend and maintain social tiestruenegative consequences from contact between distinct cultural groupsacculturative stressmanaging taxing circumstances, expending effort to solve problems, seeking to master or reduce stressCopingsquarely facing troubles and trying to solve themproblem-focused copingresponding to stress in an emotional manneremotion-focused copingWhat are the three factors of resilience?Individual, family, extra familial context-good intellectual functioning -appealing, sociable, easygoing dispositionindividual resilience-close relationship to caring parent figure -authoritative parent -connections to extended supportive family networksfamily resilience-bonds to caring adults outside the family -connections to positive orgainizations -attending effective schoolsextra familial contextWhat are four risk factors for alcohol?1. Heredity 2. Parenting 3. Peers 4. Personality and motivationeating disorder that involves the relentless pursuit of thinness through starvationanorexia nervosaan eating disorder in which the individual consistently follows a binge-purge eating patternbulimia nervosafrequent binge eating without compensatory behaviorbinge eatingWhat are the 4 top problems that effect adolescents1. drug abuse 2. juvenile delinquency 3. sexual problems 4. school- related problems