38 terms

chemistry chapter 2 vocab

chemistry chapter 2 vocab
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alloy
a solid solution containing metals
aqueous solution
a solution in which the solvent is water
atom
the smallest particle of an element that has the properties of that element
atomic number
The number of protons in an atom
charge
a certain amount of electricity
chemical bond
a bond formed when two atoms share or transfer electrons
chemical change
A change in a substance that results in one or more different substances being formed
chemical formula
A group of symbols that shows the number and kinds of atoms in a compound
chemical property
a characteristic that describes how a substance changes into one or more different substances
chemical reaction
The chemical changes involved when one or more substances react, forming one or more different substances
compound
a substance that consists of two or more kinds of atoms that are bonded
diatomic
existing as pairs of bonded atoms
electron
a particle with a negative charge in an atom
element
a substance that is made of only one kind of atom
energy
the ability to do work or produce heat
gas
a state of matter with no definite shape or volume; it takes the shape and volume of its container
heterogeneous mixture
a mixture in which one or more substances are unevenly mixed throughout
homogeneous mixture
a mixture in which all of the individual substances are evenly mixed throughout; a solution
liquid
a state of matter that has a definite volume, but takes the shape of its container
metal
an element found on the left side of the periodic table; often a shiny solid that can conduct heat and electricity
mixture
two or more substances mixed together; the properties of each substance are not affected by mixing
monatomic
existing as single atoms
neutron
a particle with no charge in the nucleus of an atom
nonmetal
an element found on the right side of the periodic table; often a gas or full solid that does not conduct heat or electricity
nucleus
the center of an atom; consists of neutrons and protons
periodic table
a table that shows the names and symbols of elements and is organized by atomic number and electron arrangement
physical change
a change in a substance that affects its physical properties, but not its chemical properties
physical property
a characteristic of a substance that can be observed without changing the substance
polyatomic
existing as groups of three or more bonded atoms
proton
a particle with a positive charge in the nucleus of an atom
semimetal
an element that has properties of both a metal and a nonmetal; located between metals and nonmetals on the periodic table
solid
a state of matter that has a definite shape and volume
solute
a substance that is dissolved in a solvent to create a solution
solution
a homogeneous mixture of one or more solutes dissolved in a solvent
solvent
the substance that a solute is dissolved in; usually the substance in a solution that is present in the greatest amount
state
the physical form of a substance; solid, liquid, or gas
subscript
A number written just below the writing line; in chemical formulas, it tells the
number of atoms of a certain element
substance
A kind of matter with a definite makeup and definite chemical and physical
properties; an element or a compound