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approach to psychotherapy that, depending on the client's problems, uses techniques from various forms of therapy
treatment involving psychological techiques, consists of interactions between a trained therapist and someone seeking to overcome psychological difficulties or achieve personal growth
in psychoanalysis, the analyst's noting supposed dream meaings, resistances, and other significant behaviors and events in order to promote insight
in psychoanalysis, the patient's transfer to the analyst of emotions linked with other relationshops (such as love or hatred for a parent)
therapy deriving from the psychoanalytic tradition that views individuals as responding to unconscious forces and childhood experiences, and that seeks to enhance self-insight
variety of therapy that aim to improve psychological functioning by increasing the client's awareness of underlying motives and defense
humanistic therapy (developed by Carl Rogers) in which the therapist uses techniques such as active listening within a genuine, accepting, empathic environment to facilitate client's growth
empathic listening in which the listener echos, resttes, and clarifies. part of client-centered therapy
unconditional positive regard
a caring, accepting, nonjudgmental attitude, which Carl Rogers believed would help clients to develope self-awareness and self-acceptance
a behavior therapy procedure that uses classical conditioning to evoke new responses to stimuli that are triggering unwanted behaviors (includes exposure therapies and aversion conditioning)
behavioral techniques, such as systematic desensitization, that treat anxiety by exposing people (in imagination or actuality) to things they fear and avoid
a type of exposure therapy that associates a pleasant relaxed state with gradually increasing anxiety-triggering stimuli (often used to treat phobias)
virtual reality exposure therapy
anxiety treatment that progressively exposes people to stimulations of their greatest fear
type of counter conditioning that associates an unpleasant state (such as nausea) with unwanted behavior (such as drinking alcohol)
operant conditioning procedure in which people earn a token of some sort for exhibiting a desired behavior and can later exchange the token for various privileges or treats
group and family therapies
therapy that treats the family as a system. views individuals unwanted behaviors as influenced by, or directed at, other family members
using tested and up to date techniques and the patients individual traits to fiind the best treatment
a side effect of drugs that target dopamine receptors-causes twitches and involuntary facial movements
lift depressed moods and control OCD-increase mood by elevating neurotransmitters
repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation
uses magnetic pulses to stimulate or depress brain activity can treat depression with fewer side effects than electroconvulsive therapy
severs frontal lobe connections to calm emtional outburts but severely incapacitated person's functioning (it is no longer used)
a brief variation of psychodynamic therapy to treat depression. aim: to help people gain insight into the roots of their difficulties goal: symptom relief but NOT personality change, focus on current relationship
1) focus on present/future 2)conscious 3)responsibility for one's feelings and actions 4) promoting growth
stress inoculating training
cognitive therapy. teaching people to restructure their thinking in stressful situations
regression toward the mean
the tendency for unusual events or emotions to regress/return to their average state
eye movement desensitization and reprocessing
(effective vs. false) trigger eye movements while imagining traumatic events --> lower in anxiety
commonalities in psychotherapy (3)
1) hope for demoralized people 2) new perspective on oneself and the world 3) empathic, trusting, and caring relationship
selective serotonine reuptake inhibitors
slow the synaptic reuptake of serotonin. many antidepressant drugs
dual action drugs
block reuptake of nonrepinephrine and serotonine. have more side effects. antidepressants.
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