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eclectic approach

approach to psychotherapy that, depending on the client's problems, uses techniques from various forms of therapy


treatment involving psychological techiques, consists of interactions between a trained therapist and someone seeking to overcome psychological difficulties or achieve personal growth


in psychoanalysis, the blocking from consciousness of anxiety-laden material


in psychoanalysis, the analyst's noting supposed dream meaings, resistances, and other significant behaviors and events in order to promote insight


in psychoanalysis, the patient's transfer to the analyst of emotions linked with other relationshops (such as love or hatred for a parent)

psychodynamic therapist

therapy deriving from the psychoanalytic tradition that views individuals as responding to unconscious forces and childhood experiences, and that seeks to enhance self-insight

insight therapies

variety of therapy that aim to improve psychological functioning by increasing the client's awareness of underlying motives and defense

client-centered therapy

humanistic therapy (developed by Carl Rogers) in which the therapist uses techniques such as active listening within a genuine, accepting, empathic environment to facilitate client's growth

active listening

empathic listening in which the listener echos, resttes, and clarifies. part of client-centered therapy

unconditional positive regard

a caring, accepting, nonjudgmental attitude, which Carl Rogers believed would help clients to develope self-awareness and self-acceptance

behavior therapy

therapy that applies learning principles to the elimination of unwanted behaviors


a behavior therapy procedure that uses classical conditioning to evoke new responses to stimuli that are triggering unwanted behaviors (includes exposure therapies and aversion conditioning)

exposure therapies

behavioral techniques, such as systematic desensitization, that treat anxiety by exposing people (in imagination or actuality) to things they fear and avoid

systematic desensitization

a type of exposure therapy that associates a pleasant relaxed state with gradually increasing anxiety-triggering stimuli (often used to treat phobias)

virtual reality exposure therapy

anxiety treatment that progressively exposes people to stimulations of their greatest fear

aversive conditioning

type of counter conditioning that associates an unpleasant state (such as nausea) with unwanted behavior (such as drinking alcohol)

token economy

operant conditioning procedure in which people earn a token of some sort for exhibiting a desired behavior and can later exchange the token for various privileges or treats

cognitive therapies

therapy that teaches people new and more adaptive ways of thinking and acting

group and family therapies

therapy that treats the family as a system. views individuals unwanted behaviors as influenced by, or directed at, other family members


using statistical procedure to summarize and combine results of many studies

evidence-based practice

using tested and up to date techniques and the patients individual traits to fiind the best treatment

biomedical therapy

using medication or surgeries to affect the nervous system


the study of drug effects on the mind and behavior

antipsychotic drugs

drugs for psychoses (when hallucinations cause loss of contact with reality)

tardive dyskinesia

a side effect of drugs that target dopamine receptors-causes twitches and involuntary facial movements

antianxiety drugs

depress the CNS to control anxiety and agitation (?)

antidepresent drugs

lift depressed moods and control OCD-increase mood by elevating neurotransmitters

electroconvulsive therapy

uses electric currents to the brain to treat severe depression

repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation

uses magnetic pulses to stimulate or depress brain activity can treat depression with fewer side effects than electroconvulsive therapy


surgery that removes or destroys brain tissue


severs frontal lobe connections to calm emtional outburts but severely incapacitated person's functioning (it is no longer used)


personal or inner strength to cope and bounce back from trauma

psychotherapy integration

combine a selection of assorted techniques into a single coherent system

free association

psychoanalysis, first relax mind and then say aloud whatever comes to mind

latent content

dream's underlying but censored meaning in dream analysis

interpersonal psychotherapy

a brief variation of psychodynamic therapy to treat depression. aim: to help people gain insight into the roots of their difficulties goal: symptom relief but NOT personality change, focus on current relationship


1) focus on present/future 2)conscious 3)responsibility for one's feelings and actions 4) promoting growth

stress inoculating training

cognitive therapy. teaching people to restructure their thinking in stressful situations

regression toward the mean

the tendency for unusual events or emotions to regress/return to their average state

eye movement desensitization and reprocessing

(effective vs. false) trigger eye movements while imagining traumatic events --> lower in anxiety

seasonal affective disorder

"winter depression" treatment: increase in morning bright light

commonalities in psychotherapy (3)

1) hope for demoralized people 2) new perspective on oneself and the world 3) empathic, trusting, and caring relationship

therapeutic alliance

emotional bond between therapist and client

who tend to improve most with therapies?

people with specific problems

selective serotonine reuptake inhibitors

slow the synaptic reuptake of serotonin. many antidepressant drugs

dual action drugs

block reuptake of nonrepinephrine and serotonine. have more side effects. antidepressants.


birth of new brain cells from the increase in serotonin

mood-stabilizing drug

ex: lithium salt. effective for bipolar disorder

brain deep stimulation

excite neurons in a cortex area that bridges thinking frontal lobes to the limbic system.

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