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Terms in this set (31)
A decline in the response to a stimulus as the stimulus becomes familiar. Infant behavioral response: decline in attention
An increase in the responsiveness when something novel is presented, following a series of something familiar. Increase in attention (responding to change).
Also Pavlovian conditioning. Form of learning in which stimulus is paired with another so that the organism learns a relationship between stimuli. Unconditioned and Conditioned stimulus.
Pairing US with CR
Presenting the two unpaired and therefore disassociating them.
The reappearance of an extinguished response after a period in which no further conditioning trials have been presented
Little Albert Study
Study by Watson and Reyner (1920), in which a little boy became afraid of white fuzzy objects because he associated them with a loud clang after seeing a bunny and hearing a loud clang at the same time.
The tendency for stimuli similar to those used during learning to elicit a reaction similar to the learned response. (little Albert)
occurs when an organism that has learned a response to a specific stimulus does not respond in the same way to new stimuli that are similar to the original stimulus
Real World Examples of Stimuli
Fast food sign --> hunger
Place that you do drugs --> craving for that drug
A form of learning in which the participant receives a reinforcer only after performing the desired response, and thereby learns a relationship between the response and the reinforcer. (instrumental conditioning)
Thorndike's Law of Effect
Responses followed by satisfying consequences become more probable, responses followed by dissatisfying consequences become less probable.
E.L. Thorndike creates box in which cat must push a button to get out. Over time, the animal learns how to get out of box and can do so quicker.
Founder of behavioralism, creates operant chamber
Box in which a lever controls different things such as give a food pellet or stop a shock
an instrumental response that is defined by its effect on the environment (operant = lever press, consequence = food)
A stimulus that increases the probability that a behavior will occur again
Adding something to make behavior occur again (reward of treat)
Taking something away to make a behavior occur again (lever press takes away shock)
A stimulus that decreases the probability that a behavior will recur
Add something to make a behavior occur less often (bad doggy!)
Take something away to make a behavior occur less often (send dog to dog house)
A learning condition in which only some of the organism's responses are reinforced. With rats/maze, rat will persist down ally when there is no food because it knows that sometimes there is not food.
Ratio vs. Interval schedules.
behaviors are reinforced after producing a certain number of responses (can be fixed or variable) slot machine = variable ratio
Behaviors are reinforced after a certain amount of time (can be fixed or variable).
Edward C. Toleman
1948 - cognitive maps in rats, two weeks of training, 3 groups: control, regular, delayed rewards.
Learning that occurs without a corresponding change in behavior. Delayed group made much fewer errors after the reward was presented.
Classical vs. Operant Conditioning
Classical: stimulus --> response
Operant: Response --> stimulus
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