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Agricultural Revolution

The second social revolution, based on the invention of the plow, which led to an agricultural society


People who share a culture and a territory

Hunting & Gathering Socities

A human group that depends on hunting and gathering for its survival

Pastoral & Horticultural Societies

A society based on the pasturing of animals; a society based on cultivating plants by the use of hand tools

Agricultural Societies

A society based on large-scale agriculture

Industrial Societies

A society based on the use of machines powered by fuels

Post-industrial societies

A society based on information, services, and high technology, rather than on raw materials and manufacturing

Biotech Societies

A society whose economy increasingly centers on the application of genetics to produce medicine, food, and materials

Primary Groups

Provide us with intimiate, face-to-face association and give us our basic orientations to life

Charles H. Cooley called primary groups...

"springs of life"

Secondary Groups

Larger, more anonymous groups based on a common interest or activity


Groups that we feel loyalty towards


Groups that we feel antagonism

Reference Groups

Groups we use as standards to evalute ourselves. For example: in deciding whether or not to go to college we often consider our parents opinions and standards for us.

Social Networks

refers to people who are linked to one another

Electronic Community

Emerged in the 1990s; individuals who regularly interact with one another on the Internet and who think of themselves as belonging together

Group Dynamics

Refer to how individuals affect groups and groups affect individual

What is the difference between: dyad, triad, and coalition?

Dyad - the smallest possible group, consisting of two persons

Triad - a group consisting of three people

Coalition - the alignment of some members of a group against others

Diffusion of responsibility

[Starting at a triad level]

Instrumental vs expressive - Leadership types

Instrumental - An individual who tries to keep the group moving toward its goals; also known as a task-oriented leader

Expressive - An individual who increases harmony and minimizes conflict in a group; also known as a socioemotional leader

Authoritarian vs Democratic vs Laissez Faire - Leadership styles

Authoritarian - An individual who leads by giving orders

Democratic - An individual who leads by trying to reach a consensus

Laissez Faire - An individual who leads by being highly permissive


Developed by Irving Janis and refers to situations in which a group of people think alike and any suggestion of alternatives becomes a sign of disloyalty

Traditional Society (Traditional Orientation)

A society in which the past is thought to be the best guide to the present; characterizes tribal, peasant, and feudal societies

Max Weber's theory on social change (Religion Broke Tradition)


The Characteristics of Bureaucracies

1 - Clear levels, with assignments flowing downward and accountability flowing upward

2 - A division of labor

3 - Written rules

4 - Written communications and records

5 - Impersonality and replaceability


Marx's term for worker's lack of connection to the product of their labor; caused by their being assigned repetitive tasks on a small part of a product, which leaders to a sense of powerlessness and normalnessess

Goal displacement

An organization replacing old goals with new ones; also known as goal replacement

Alexis de Tocqueville and "Democracy in America"


What are the functions of Voluntary Associations?


"Iron Law" of Oligarchy

Refers to how organizations tend to be dominated by a small, self-perpetuating elite




The violation of norms

Cultural Relativity of Deviance



The violation of norms written into law

Social order

A group's usual and customary social arrangements, on which its members depend and on which they base their lives

Social control

A group's formal and informal means of enforcing its norms.

XYY Chromosome


Differential Association Theory

Edwin Sutherland gave us this term to indicate that we learn to deviate from or conform to society's norms through the different groups that we associate with. The primary groups that we learn deviance and conformity from are the family, friends, neighborhoods, and subcultures

Control Theory

There are two control systems that work against our motivations to deviate. Our inner control systems (conscience, religious, principles, etc.) and our outer control system (family, friends, police, etc.). The stronger our bonds with society the more effective our inner controls are. Socialization is key to self-control

Degradation Ceremony


Labeling Theory

The view that labels people are given (smart, messy, thief) affect their own and other's perceptions of them which channels their behavior into deviance or conformity

Techniques of neutralization

Ways of thinking or rationalizing that help people deflect society's norms

Strain Theory

Robert Merton's term for the strain created when a society socializes large numbers of people to desire a cultural goal (such as success) but withholds from many people the approved means of reaching that goal. These people experience strain/frustration and can sometimes motivate them to turn to a deviant path to obtain the cultural goal (for example crime).


People who accept the goals of society buy use illegitimate means to try to reach them (crack dealer)


This path is taken by people who become discouraged and give up on achieveing cultural goals (burnt out teacher)


Reject both the cultural goals and the institutionalized means of achieving them (alcoholic)


Rebels seek to give society new goals, as well as new means for teaching them (revolutionaries)

Conflict theorists believe that the power elite that runs society also controls the criminal justice system. The elite pass laws that will protect its position in society and use _____ as an instrument of oppression

White collar crime

a term coined by Edwin Sutherland that refers to crimes committed by people of respectable and high social status in their occupations (for example embezzlement)

Recidivism Rate

The proportion of released convicts who are rearrested

Social Stratification

the division of large numbers of poeple into layers according to their relative property, prestige, and power


A form of social stratification in which some people own other people

Caste System

A form of social stratification in which people's statuses are determinded by birth and are lifelong


The stratificiaton system of medieval Europe, consisting of three groups or estates: the nobility, clergy, and commoners


A form of social stratification based primarily on the possession of money or material possessions

____ cuts across all systems of social stratification, whether slavery, caste, estate, or class.


Karl Marx concluded that social class depends on _____?

People's relationship to the means of production (the tools, factories, land, and investment capital used to produce wealth)

Karl Marx believed that there were only two classes of people. What are they?

Bourgeoisie (those who owned the means of production) and

Proletariat (those who worked for the owners)

What did Max Weber believe that the three components of social class?

Property (wealth), Prestige, and Power


The process by which one nation takes over another nation, usually for the purpose of exploiting its labor and natural resources


Assembly-for-export plants

Asian tigers

(Hong Kong, Singapore, South Korea, and Taiwan)

According to Weber, social class is ___?

...a large group of people who rank close to one another in property, prestige, and power

According to Marx, social class is ___?

...divided by capitalists (those own own the means of production) and workers (those who sell their labor)


Material possessions


The total value of everything someone owns, minus the debt


Money received, usually from a job, business, or assets

Typical family income in the US



The ability to carry out your will even over the resistance of others

Power Elite (coined by C. Wright Mills)

Refer to those who make the big decisions in the U.S. society


Respect or regard

What occupation has the highest presige in the US?


Durkheim's definition of anomie

A condition of society in which people become detached from the norms that usually guide their behavior

Nouveau Riche

"new money"...they are the outsiders to the upper class

Physical Health

The lower a person's social class, the more likely they are to die before the expected age

Mental Health

Mental health of the lower classes is worse than that of higher class, mainly because they face more stress which accompanies poverty. For example, they are more likely to be divorced, be victims of crime and have physical illnesses.

Family Life

There is less of a selection when choosing one's mate for someone in a lower social class. Divorce rates are higher. And lower-class parents have a more disciplinary style of child rearing.


As one goes up the social ladder, education increases


Social class is reflected in patterns of worship


The higher the social class the more likely an individual is to be Republican and the lower on the social class the individual is more likely to be Democratic.

Crime and Criminal Justice

The upper class engages in white collar crimes which are more likely to be dealt with outside of the criminal justice system

Intergenterational Mobility

The change that family members make in social class from one generation to the next

Structural Mobility

Movement up or down the social class ladder that is due to changes in the structure of soceity, not to individual efforts

Exchange Mobility

About the same numbers of people moving up and down the social class ladder, such that, on balance, the social class system shows little change

Deferred gratification

Doing without something in the present in hope of achieving greater gains in the future


Individuals who temporarily share the same physical space but who do not see themselves as belonging together


An economic system characterized by the private ownership of the means of production, the pursuit of profit, and market competition

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