Industrial Revolution
How did the Industrial Revolution transform Americans lives?
New inventions changed the way they worked, traveled, communicated, and played.
Why did industry grow so rapidly after the Civil War?
The nation expanded westward with vast deposit of coal, iron, lead, and copper. The many forest of the Pacific Northwest provided lumber for building. The government want growth so they gave generous land grants and subsides. Tariffs helped a s well.
A tax on imported goods
What did steel replace as the basic building material to make buildings in cities?
What was the steel making capitol?
What is black gold?
What is the Bessemer Process?
Process to make stronger steel at a low cost.
Why was the railroad useful?
Carried people and supplies to the West and raw materials to the east.
A document giving someone the sole right to make and sell an invention.
Why was Thomas Edison so important?
Set up a research factory that helped invent a lot of things including the light bulb, the phonograph, and mooting picture camera. He opened the first electric power plant in NY. Electricity replaced steam engines.
Alexander Grahm Bell
Invented the telephone in 1876. The patent for the telephone was the most valuable patent ever issued.
Jan Matzeliger
shoe making machine
Why was Edison's power plant important?
The eletric engine was safer than the steam engine.
Henry Ford
Perfected a system to mass produce cars making them available at a lower price.
Assembly Line
A manufacturing method in which a product is put together as it moves along a belt. Usually one person does a specific task then moves it to another person.
WIlbur and Orville Wright
The first to build and fly an airplane, at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina, December 7, 1903.
Why did the cost of automobiles decrease?
Henry Ford perfected the assembly line make it easier and cheaper to make the cars.
What factors were in place at the end of the Civil War that helped create a surge in industrial growth?
New inventions, expansion west (raw materials and more land to develop), expansion of the railroad.
What effect did the discovery of the new energy sources have on the Industrial Revolution?
Cleaner and faster way to generate power to light houses, power street cars. The new inventions would have been worthless without a reliable source of energy.
What inventions revolutionized American life in the late 1800's.
Light bulb, telephone, shoe-making machine, lightweight camera, air plane.
What impact did Ford's assembly line have on changing American lifestyles?
Did the New Industrial Revolution affect all Americans the same?
No, many owners earned huge profits while there employees had hard working conditions and low pay. However, it is the owner that took all the risk or years of education to get to that point.
A person who starts up and takes on the risk of a business or the profits of a business.
A business owned by stockholders who share in its profits but are not personally responsible for all its debts. They limit the risk of investors.
What helped American industry grow faster during this time in history than any other time before?
Banks, they lent huge amounts of capitol to corporations.
How did corporations raise capitol?
From Banks
Who was the most powerful banker at the time and how did he become so powerful?
J.P. Morgan, he gained control of key industries (railroad and steel). He would buy up the stock in companies in trouble and ran them in a way that eliminated the competition to increase profit.
Describe how new business methods helped American industry grow.
Entrepreneurs, monopolies, trust, corporations, banks lending huge amount of money, all helped contribute to the industry boom at this time.
A market in which there are many buyers but only one seller.
Andrew Carnegie
A business man that increased his power by gaining control of the many different businesses that make up all phases of steel production development. His company was Carnegie Steel Company and produced more steel than all the factories in England by the end of the 1800's. He believed the rich had a duty to improve society and set up many charities to do that.
John D. Rockefeller
Also started as a poor man. At 23 he began to build his empire as he was a great entrepreneur yet he could be ruthless as well crushing competition. He ended oil competition by forming the Standard Oil Trust.
A group of corporations run by a single board of directors
Who were the leader of big business and how did they get to the top.
Carnegie- slowly gaining control of every step in the making of steel until he combined all the different companies needed to make steel.
Rockefeller- invested money in oil and used the profit to buy other oil companies. He would destroy competitors as well.
Free Enterprise
Economic system in which individuals and businesses are allowed to compete for profit with a minimum of government interference
Do you think trust are fair?
Critics say they are a threat to free enterprise and used their wealth to influence politicians. Other saw them as bold leaders creating jobs and lowering the price for moods and services to be available to more consumers.
What did big business leaders use to justify the effort to limit competition?
Social Darwinism
What is Social Darwinism?
The belief that only the fittest survive in human political and economic struggle. , The belief that only the fittest survive in human political and economic struggle.
What was one of the most hotly debated topics by the 1900.
The use of monopolies and trusts.
As large factories grew, how did this change the dynamics between the owner and works.
The close relationship was lost. The industries attracted millions of new workers. Immigrants, native born, African Americans. Woman and children also worked in sweatshops.
How were the workers treated in the industries.
Many worked in sweatshops, they worked long hours under poor conditions for low pay. Children usually worked in dangerous conditions and could not go to school so they could not improve their lives.
Did the factory workers face lots of dangers.
Yes, long hours, low pay, they would lock them in the factories so they could not leave work. Inguries suffered on the job were not a problem of the company. A fire at the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory brought attention to the conditions at the factories.
Was it legal to strike before the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory
No, laws made it illegal to go in strike.
Knights of Labor
1st effort to create National union. Open to everyone including woman but not skilled workers. Vague program, no clear goals, weak leadership and organization. Did not believe in strikes.
What union replaced the Knights of Labor as the leading union?
AFL, the American Federation of Labor
Samuel Gompers
He was the creator of the American Federation of Labor. He provided a stable and unified union for skilled workers. He believedmin skilled workers because they were hard to replace because they have to be trained. It barred African Americans, unskilled workers, immigrants.
Collective Bargaining
Unions negotiate with management for workers as a group.
Mary Harris Jones
Labor organizer, known as Mother Jones. She fought for coal workers' rights by speaking in Appalachian mining towns, encouraging them to join unions. She also faught for child labor laws.
Movement of people from rural areas to cities rapidly growing the population.
What brought about the rapid urbanization of cities in America in the late 1800's?
Cities attracted factories, factories attracted people. Most where near waterways because it provided easy transportation for their goods.
to speed up, cause to move faster
Where was the first skyscraper build and how high was it.
Chicago, 10 stories
As cities grew,how did it change the population of cities.
Poor families crowded in the old part of the cities, middle classic row houses or apartments, and the rich, build mansions on the outskirts of the city.
What problems did urbanization cause.
overcrowded housing, polluted air, lack of clean water, crime, fires, diseases.
Jane Addams
1860-1935. Founder of Settlement House Movement. First American Woman to earn Nobel Peace Prize in 1931 as president of Women's Intenational League for Peace and Freedom. Provided services for those that could not afford it on their own.
What problems did the tenement dwellers face?
overcrowded housing, polluted air, lack of clean water, crime, fires, diseases.
Name five developments from Urbanization
1. Growth of industries in cities attracted workers.
2. African Americans from the South and immigrants sought a better life.
3. Many cities near waterways attracted cities.
4. Technological advances led cities to construct subways, trolleys, streetlights, bridges, and skyscrapers.
5. Many leisure activities that cities provided drew people to urban areas.
Name three effects from Urbanization.
1. Urban transportation system enable people to live in one part of the city and work in another.
2. Flood of people into cities led to teeming neighborhoods that became slums.
3. Improvements in transportation gave rise of suburbs.
What activities did city dwellers enjoy?
Department stores, museums, theaters, parks, zoos, and sports. Baseball being the first to organize a professional league.
A large open area beneath a ship's deck, often used to house traveling immigrants but was really for cattle
Becoming part of another culture
A person who opposes all forms of government.
Why did immigration to the US increase in the late 1800s
A. Europeans nations came because farmland was shrinking
B. Russian Jews came for religious freedom
C. Mexicans came to flee political unrest
D. Jobs pulled immigrants from all over
E. Promise of freedom from lands without the traditions of freedom and democracy
Describe the difficulties immigrates faced adjusting to their new lives.
It meant levying home, family, and friends and starting a new life in a strange area.
How did the immigrants assimilate and adjust to their new lives.
The children assimilated faster than their parents because they went to school with English speakers and heard it on the streets. Children adapt faster.
Describe efforts to limit immigration.
In 1882 the Chinese Exclusion Act limited immigrating based on race. In 1917 Congress passed a law denying entry if you could not read your native language (since education became so important in the US at this time).
Where did immigrant from from Europe and Asia enter the US?
Europe- Ellis Island
Asia- Angel Island in San Francisco
What helped immigrants feel less isolated when they came to the US?
Two thirds settled in cities near people from their countries.
Who assimilated better after moving to the US, adults or children?
Children because they were surrounded by English speakers at school and on the street and learned it very quickly.
How did public education change after 1870.
As industry grew, people realized that the nation needed an educated workforce. Other than the South, most states required children to attend grade school. After the Civil War many cities built high schools. Colleges also expanded at this time.
Describe the growth of the American news-paper industry.
There were two reasons for the boom in newspapers, education and urbanization. More educated people meant more people where interested in keeping up with politics, business, and entertainment. Before urbanization, locals would share information face to face.
Compulsory Education
The requirement that children attend school up to a certain age.
Writers who tried to show life at it is.
Mark Twain
Most popular author at that time. He made hie stories realistic by using the speech patterns of his characters. He his best known for Huckleberry Finn and is considered one of America's greatest novels.
Joseph Pulitzer
Hungarian immigrant, created the first modern mass -circulated newspaper. He also put in crowd-pleasing features such as color comics. His newspaper the New York World became know for sensational headlines.
Yellow Journalism
Journalism that exploits, distorts, or exaggerates the news to create sensations and attract readers
What state passed the first compulsory act?
Massachusetts, with other states in the Midwest, North, and West following.
Did the South have a tradition for education?
No but the Freedman's Bureau built grade schools for both black and white students.
In what industry did most immigrants work and what did they help build.
They worked in steal mills, meat packing plant, mines, and the garment sweatshops. They helped build subways, skyscrapers, and bridges.
How did many immigrants economically advance?
Hard work and saving their money.
Name some immigrants that made major contributions.
Cargine, Graham Bell, Goldwyn, Mayer, Toscanini, and Beakland
What did Nativists want to preserve?
the US for native born
What did many Americans associate immigrants with?
Violence, crime, and anarchy.