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Biology Semester 1 Vocabulary
Terms in this set (118)
A hypothesis that has been tested with a significant amount of data
universal principle that describes the basic functions of the natural world
Information obtained through the senses.
A testable prediction, often implied by a theory; an educated guess
the group that does not receive the experimental treatment.
the group in an experiment that receives the variable being tested
variable that is manipulated or changed
the variable that is not changed in an experiment
A factor that can change in an experiment
a set of controlled observations that test the hypothesis
the chemical processes that occur within a living organism in order to maintain life.
process by which organisms maintain a relatively stable internal environment
The study of how living things interact with each other and their environment
the process of producing offspring; ability to produce offspring
The gradual change in a species over time
Anything that has mass and takes up space
characteristic of a substance that is observed during a reaction in which the chemical composition or identity of the substance is changed
Basic unit of matter
positively charged particle
particle with no charge
negatively charged particle
A pure substance made of only one kind of atom; cannot be broken down
A group of atoms bonded together; covalently bonded
Atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons
A chart of the elements showing the repeating pattern of their properties
substance formed by the chemical combination of two or more elements in definite proportions
a chemical bond between two elements through transferring of electrons
A chemical bond formed when two atoms share electrons
a particle smaller than an atom; proton, neutron, electron
Electrons on the outermost energy level (ring) of an atom
Attraction between a slightly positive hydrogen atom and a slightly negative atom.
Chemical formula for water
Attraction between molecules of the same substance
attraction between molecules of different substances
Attracted to water
Having an aversion to water; tending to coalesce and form droplets in water. (dislikes water)
A homogeneous mixture of two or more substances
A liquid substance capable of dissolving other substances
the substance that is dissolved in a solvent
A simple compound whose molecules can join together to form polymers
molecules composed of many monomers; makes up macromolecules
The change of state from a gas to a liquid
A chemical process that splits a molecule by adding water.
single sugar molecule
A double sugar, consisting of two monosaccharides joined by dehydration synthesis.
large macromolecule formed from monosaccharides
compounds with the same chemical formula but different structures
Building blocks of protein
covalent bond formed between amino acids
A type of protein that speeds up a chemical reaction in a living thing
The reactant on which an enzyme works.
a region on an enzyme that binds to a protein or other substance during a reaction.
a lipid made of three fatty acid molecules and one glycerol molecule
a lipid containing a phosphate group in its molecule
A second group of neutral lipids
lipid molecule with four fused carbon rings
A building block of DNA, consisting of a five-carbon sugar covalently bonded to a nitrogenous base and a phosphate group.
(adenosine triphosphate) main energy source that cells use for most of their work
the shortest distance between two points on a specimen
microscope that uses a beam of light passing through one or more lenses to magnify an object
the ratio of an object's image size to its real size
Basic unit of life
A tiny cell structure that carries out a specific function within the cell
single-celled organisms that lack a nucleus; prokaryotes
A unicellular organism that lacks a nucleus and membrane bound organelles
A cell that contains a nucleus and membrane bound organelles
membranes that allow some substances through but not others
A state of balance
Having a lower concentration of solute than another solution
when the concentration of two solutions is the same
Having a higher concentration of solute than another solution.
the transport of substances through a cell membrane along a concentration gradient with the aid of carrier proteins
a pore in a cell membrane through which ions can pass
a protein that transports substances across a cell membrane
the movement of materials through a cell membrane using energy
cell membrane pumps
carrier proteins that serve in active transport
process by which a cell takes material into the cell by infolding of the cell membrane
Process by which a cell releases large amounts of material
A microscopic pore surrounded by guard cells in the epidermis of leaves and stems that allows gas exchange between the environment and the interior of the plant.
A colored chemical compound that absorbs light, producing color.
fluid portion of the chloroplast; outside of the thylakoids
saclike photosynthetic membranes found in chloroplasts
cluster of chlorophyll and proteins found in thylakoids
primary electron acceptor
Specialized molecule that shares a reaction center with the chlorophyll a molecule in the light reaction. traps high energy electron before it can return to ground state in the chlorophyll.
electron transport chain
a series of proteins in which the high-energy electrons from the Krebs cycle are used to convert ADP into ATP
electron carrier that provides high-energy electrons for photosynthesis
ADP (adenosine diphosphate)
low-energy molecule that can be converted to ATP
NADP+ (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate)
a coenzyme that functions as a universal electron carrier
Process that requires oxygen
Process that does not require oxygen
the breakdown of glucose by enzymes, releasing energy and pyruvic acid.
second stage of cellular respiration, in which pyruvic acid is broken down into carbon dioxide in a series of energy-extracting reactions
electron carrier involved in glycolysis
An energy-carrying coenzyme produced by glycolysis and the Krebs cycle. NADH carries energy to the electron transport chain, where it is stored in ATP.
a redox-active coenzyme associated with various proteins
A molecule that stores energy for harvest by the electron transport chain.
Organic compound with a backbone of three carbon atoms. Two molecules form as end products of glycolysis
Process by which cells release energy in the absence of oxygen
the anaerobic process by which yeasts and other microorganisms break down sugars to form carbon dioxide and ethanol
lactic acid fermentation
the chemical breakdown of carbohydrates that produces lactic acid as the main end product
A form of asexual reproduction in single-celled organisms by which one cell divides into two cells of the same size
A complex molecule containing the genetic information that makes up the chromosomes.
protein molecules around which DNA is tightly coiled in chromatin
one of two identical "sister" parts of a duplicated chromosome
the region of a chromosome to which the microtubules of the spindle attach
cell division in which the nucleus divides into nuclei containing the same number of chromosomes
Made of a single cell
series of events that cells go through as they grow and divide
first and longest phase of mitosis, during which the chromosomes become visible and the centrioles separate and take up positions on the opposite sides of the nucleus
second phase of mitosis, during which the chromosomes line up across the center of the cell
the third phase of mitosis, during which the chromosome pairs separate and move toward opposite poles
the final phase of cell division, between anaphase and interphase, in which the chromatids or chromosomes move to opposite ends of the cell and two nuclei are formed.
division of the cytoplasm
In a plant cell, midline of dividing cells. Becomes the cell wall eventually.
one of a family of proteins that regulates the cell cycle in eukaryotic cells
A disease in which some body cells grow and divide uncontrollably, damaging the parts of the body around them.
A segment of DNA on a chromosome that codes for a specific trait
unspecialized cell that can give rise to one or more types of specialized cells
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