AP Psych Cards

Summer 2014

Terms in this set (...)

Darwin, Charles
survival of the fittest - theory that individuals, groups, and peoples are subject to the same Darwinian laws of natural selection as plants and animals (continued existence of organisms that are best adapted to their environment, with the extinction of others); used to justify political conservatism, imperialism, and racism and to discourage intervention and reform in the late 19th and early 20th centuries
Freud, Sigmund
defense mechanism - Psychological forces which prevent undesirable or inappropriate impulses from entering consciousness; also known as Defenses, Defense System, or Ego Defenses
James, William
functionalism - school of thought popular in the 19th century emphasizing conscious experiences as a precursor to behavior
Pavlov, Ivan
classical conditioning with dogs - behavioral technique of pairing a naturally occurring stimulus and response chain with a different stimulus in order to produce a response which is not naturally occurring
Piaget, Jean
object permanence - understanding that objects exist even when they are not directly observed
Skinner, B.F.
operant conditioning with the skinner box - father of behavioral therapy; the box was a cage designed for animals in operant conditioning experiments; once stated that with the ability to control a child's environment, he could raise a child to become anything he wanted
Watson, John B.
conditioning fears with Little Albert - case study showing empirical evidence of classical conditioning in humans; also an example of stimulus generalization; Watson thought that could he condition a child to fear another distinctive stimulus which normally would not be feared by a child
Wundt, Wilhelm
introspection - process of examining one's own consciousness; relies exclusively on observation of one's mental state; Wundt (father of modern psych) was the first to adopt introspection to experimental psychology; imposed exacting control over the use of introspection
Titchener, Edward
structuralism - school of thought from the 19th century focused on the gathering of psychological information through the examination of the structure of the mind
Broca, Paul
Broca's area - region of the brain concerned with the production of speech, located in the cortex of the dominant frontal lobe. Damage in this area causes Broca's aphasia, characterized by hesitant and fragmented speech with little grammatical structure
Gazzaniga, Michael/Sperry, Roger
lateral brain function - Sperry discovered that human beings are of two minds, right and left hemisphere's of the brain; together they conducted extensive experiments on an epileptic patient who had had his corpus collosum split (no connection between hemispheres) ; Sperry's work helped chart a map of the brain and opened whole fields of psychological and philosophical questions
Wernicke, Carl
Wernieke's area - region of the brain that is important in language development; located on the temporal lobe on the left side of the brain and is responsible for the comprehension of speech; Language development or usage can be seriously impaired by damage to this area of the brain
Fechner, Gustav
absolute threshold - smallest intensity of a stimulus that has to be present for the stimulus to be detected
Hubel, David/Wiesel, Torsten
simple/complex cells in visual sys. -studies showed how the visual system builds an image from simple stimuli into more complex representations; inserted a microelectrode into the primary visual cortex of an anesthetized cat and projected patterns of light and dark on a screen in front of it; found that some neurons fired rapidly when presented with lines at one angle, while others responded best to another angle, "simple cells" ; other neurons responded best to lines of a certain angle moving in one direction "complex cells"
Weber ,Ernst
Weber's law - amount of change necessary to detect a different in a stimuli must be staged in a percentage since recognition of the change is relative to the characteristics of the initial stimulus
Hilgard, Ernest
Divided Consciousness theory of Hypnosis - pioneered hypnosis research; during hypnosis, our consciousness splits, so that one aspect of consciousness is not aware of the role other parts are playing.
Bandura, Albert
social learning theory - states that social behavior is learned primarily by observing and imitating the actions of others and is also influenecd by being rewarded and/or punished for these actions; occurs from a combination of environmental and psychological factors
Garcia, John
taste aversion -mind develops a resistance towards a certain food; can be caused by either a bad experience or a form of classical condition which the body uses a natural instinct as a means of protection (survival mechanism)
Thorndike ,Edward
law of effect - behaviors that lead to satisfying outcomes are likely to be repeated, whereas behaviors that lead to undesired outcomes are less likely to recur
Tolman, Edward
latent learning/cognitive maps - form of learning that is not immediately expressed in an overt response; it occurs without any obvious reinforcement of the behavior or associations that are learned; mental representation of one's physical environment, for example, when a friend asks you for directions to your house, you are able to create an image in your mind of the roads, places to turn, landmarks, etc., along the way to your house from your friend's starting point
Chomsky, Noam
language acquisition device - he first proposed it in the 1960s; the LAD concept is an instinctive mental capacity which enables an infant to acquire and produce language.
Ebbinghaus, Hermann
forgetting curve - first to study the forgetting behavior in an experimental, scientific way and studied on himself preforming a series of tests over various time periods; found that forgetting is exponential in nature; memory goes down raiply in the first few day but slows afterwards
Kohler, Wolfgang
insight - the sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem
Loftus, Elizabeth
(re)constructive memory -process of assembling information from stored knowledge when a clear or coherent memory of specific events does not exist
Miller, George A.
Magical # 7 plus/minus 2 - one of the most highly cited papers in psychology; often interpreted to argue that the number of objects an average human can hold in working memory is 7 ± 2; often known as Miller's Law
James, William/Lange, Carl
James-Lange theory of emotion - suggests that emotions occur as a result of physiological reactions to events; witnessing an external stimulus leads to a physiological reaction; emotional reaction depends upon how those physical reactions are interpreted
Cannon,Walter/Bard, Philip
Cannon-Bard Theory of Emotion - emotional expression results from the function of hypothalamic structures, and emotional feeling results from stimulations of the dorsal thalamus, physiological changes and subjective feeling of an emotion in response to a stimulus are separate and independent; arousal does not have to occur before the emotion; thalamic region is attributed a major role in this theory of emotion
Schachter, Stanley/Singer, Jerome
two factor theory of emotion - states that emotion is based on two factor;: physiological arousal and cognitive label, physiological arousal occurs and the person uses the immediate environment to search for emotional cues to label the physiological arousal
Kinsey, Alfred
the Kinsey Reports - two books on human sexual behavior (Male, 1948 and Female, 1953); used in-depth, face-to-face interviews by highly trained interviewers to get information
Maslow, Abraham
hierarchy of needs - believed humans have certain needs that must be fulfilled for healthy living;needs motivate us to act the way we do, and in particular, in ways that satisfy the needs that are not yet fulfilled; not all equally important; basic/most important needs on the bottom when presented in a pyramid
Selye, Hans
General Adaptation Syndrome - young medical doctor who noticed people were experiencing similar types of symptoms but did not have a physical cause for them; realized the problems were caused by stress; determined that the body has a natural response to stress; composed of three stages: alarm, resistance, exhaustion, the last causing the most problems
Ainsworth, Mary
strange situation test - created to explore childhood attachments patterns; child is said to have a Secure Attachment when he is playing when the mother is around, interacts with the stranger when the mother is theret but not when she is absent, shows distress when the mother leaves, and is happy to see the mother return (mom and stranger leave several times durring this test)
Baumrind, Diana
parenting styles -manner in which parents raise their children; can refer to the parents' levels of expectations, performance demands, attentiveness to rules, etc.,as well as the style of discipline that the parents' use; styles range from highly authoritarian to an "anything goes" attitude
Erikson, Erik
Stages of psychosocial development - outlined personality development from birth to old age; each of the eight stages is marked by a conflict which must be successfully resolved in order to attain a favorable outcome;first stage of development (from birth to 18 months) is Trust vs. Mistrust, second stage (18 months to 3 years) is Autonomy vs. Shame, third stage (3 to 5 years) is Initiative vs. Guilt, fourth stage (6 to 12 years) is the conflict of Industry vs. Inferiority, fifth stage (12 to 18 years) is Identity vs. Role Confusion, sixth stage (18 to 35 years) is Intimacy vs. Isolation, seventh stage (35 to 55 or 65) is Generativity vs. Stagnation, last stage (65 onwards) is Integrity vs. Despair
Harlow, Harry
contact comfort in monkeys - physical and emotional comfort that an infant receives from being in physical contact with its mother
Kohlberg, Lawrence
theory of moral development - as children age, they become more adept at distinguishing right from wrong
Lorenz, Konrad
imprinting - certain birds and mammals form attachments during a critical period very early in their lives; during this point in development thet are so available to form attachments, that even if there is no mother bird, they may develop attachments to a substitute
Vygotsky, Lev
theory of mind - ability humans have to recognize and attribute mental states not only in themselves but in other people, and to understand that feelings and beliefs we have may be different than others; theory also states that there are mental conditions (autism spectrum disorders, schizophrenia, ADHD, etc.) that prevent some people from being able to recognize mental states in others
Adler, Alfred
inferiority complex -people who compensate for feelings of inferiority by acting ways that make them appear superior, they do this because controlling others may help them feel less personally inadequate
Costa, Paul/McCrae, Robert
the BIG FIVE personality traits - also called the Five-Factor Model; refers to a basic group of personality traits that can be assessed through interviews and standardized testing; basic traits are referred to as Openness to experience, Conscientiousness, Extroversion, Agreeableness and Neuroticism; traits can be assessed and evaluated to produce a very basic psychological profile of how a person organizes and runs their life; also a more complete 16-factor model that produces a more complete profile
Jung, Carl
archetypes held in the collective unconscious - he developed an understanding of archetypes as universal, archaic patterns and images that derive from the collective unconscious and are the psychic counterpart of instinct; are autonomous and hidden forms which are transformed once they enter consciousness and are given particular expression by individuals and their cultures; can only be deduced indirectly by examining behavior, images, art, myths, religions, or dreams; inherited potentials which are actualized when they enter consciousness as images or manifest in behavior on interaction with the outside world; refer to unclear underlying forms
Rogers, Carl
Client Centered Therapy - erapy that uses a humanistic approach focusing on the human need for self-actualization and emphasizes healthy psychological growth
Binet, Alfred/ Simon,Théodore
Binet-Simon scale of intelligence - first IQ test; published in 1916; Binet had been requested by a government commission to come up with a way to detect children with significantly below-average intelligence and mental retardation; used the test not only to help identify children with learning difficulties but to also find children and adults who had above average levels of intelligence; revised jversion known as the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales
Gardner, Howard
Multiple Intelligences - heory of intelligence that differentiates it into specific "modalities", rather than seeing intelligence as dominated by a single general ability
Spearman, Charles
'g' factor in intelligence - "g" is a statistical term that refers to the general intelligence factor that underlies all intelligent activity; concept was first put forward by researcher Charles Spearman in early 20th century after comparing the scores of grade school students for score correlations across several subjects and noting that individual students routinely scored within the same ranges across the subjects; apparent correlation led him to the conclusion that each individual possessed a basic ability (intelligence) level
Sternberg, Robert
Triarchic theory of intelligence - was among the first to go against the psychometric approach to intelligence and take a more cognitive approach; comprises three parts: componential (associated with analytical giftedness), experiential (deals mainly with how well a task is performed with regard to how familiar it is), and practical (deals with the mental activity involved in attaining fit to context)
Terman, Louis
Stanford-Binet IQ test -modified version of the Binet-Simon Intelligence scale
Wechsler, David
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale - designed to measure intelligence in adults and older adolescents; currently in its fourth edition; first form was published in February 1955; includes 60 questions and it is scored automatically after 40 minutes mimics Wais
Beck, Aaron
Beck's Cognitive therapy - designed and carried out several experiments to test psychoanalytic concepts of depression
Cover Jones, Mary
countercond. (the study with little peter) - type of therapy based on the principles of classical conditioning that attempts to replace bad or unpleasant emotional responses to a stimulus with more pleasant, adaptive responses; she was able to make young boy stop being afraid of rabbits; first the rabbit kept away from the boy and moved closer, while the boy was able to eat his favorite foods. he was allowed to touch the rabbit and ate his food to reduce the nervousness touching the rabbit induced; by the end he was able to pet the rabbit without a sign of fear:the unpleasant and feared stimulus of the rabbit was replaced by the stimulus of the food
Wolpe, Joseph
Systematic desensitization - therapy for fears and aversions that people have; premise is to reduce a person's anxiety responses through counterconditioning; based on conditioning relaxation with the feared object or object of anxiety; if you have learned to be afraid of something you associate it with fear, this teaches you to associate the thing you fear with relaxation instead
Ashe, Solomon
conformity studies - series of laboratory experiments in the 1950s that demonstrated the degree to which an individual's own opinions are influenced by those of a majority group
Festinger, Leon
cognitive dissonance - asserts that people often have two conflicting or inconsistent cognitions which produce a state of tension or discomfort; People are then motivated to reduce the dissonance, often in the easiest manner possible; in the study people who had engaged in a boring task for along period of time had to tell the next participant who was going to engage in the same task that it was actually a lot of fun; dissonance = telling a lie, but most people do not view themselves as liars
Milgram, Stanley
obedience to authority/ shock study - well-known for conducting series of controversial experiments on Obedience to Authority Figures, called the Milgram Experiment; found that a big majority of the participants were willing to obey an authority figure even when they were being instructed to do something that they believed was morally wrong; composed of an experimenter, a learner (who was an accomplice), and a teacher (the participant); "teacher" instructed by the experimenter to deliver increasingly stronger electric shocks whenever the learner gave a wrong response and even though most of them did not want to continue, they would if the teacher told them to; concluded that people may see themselves as instruments for implementing the wishes of a higher authority and cannot liable for their actions, "just doing their job"
Zimbardo, Philip
Stanford prison experiment - controversial experiment which investigated the psychological effects of being a prisoner or prison guard; college students were randomly assigned to become prisoners or guards; both the prisoners and guards started to become their roles; prisoners became passive and depressed and guards became sadistic; was designed to be a 2 week experiment cut but was short after 6 days due to the emotional trauma experienced by the participants; demonstrated Lucifer Effect - how good people can turn evil in response to the situation they are in, and not as a result of their real personalities
Rorschach, Hermann
Rorschach Inkblot test -most widely used type of projective test; individuals are shown various ambiguous inkblot pictures and asked to describe what they see; psychologists attempt to understand the person's inner feelings, thoughts, and issues by analyzing someone's responses
Seligman, Martin
learned helplessness - condition in which a person suffers from a sense of powerlessness, arising from a traumatic event or persistent failure to succeed; thought to be one of the underlying causes of depression
Hull, Clark
drive reduction theory -some physiological need occurs that creates a state of tension which in turn motivates you to reduce the tension or satisfy the need; example - need for water, you feel thirsty, you drink water
Kubler-Ross, Elizabeth
Stages of death and dying - was inspired by her work with terminally ill patience; the 5 stages are denial, anger, bargaining, depression and acceptance
Murray, Henry
Thematic Apperception Test - projective test used to help people express their feelings in a non-threatening manner; done by having people create stories about ambiguous characters, scenes, and situations; people are shown ambiguous pictures and then asked to make up stories about them; allows them to "project" their own feelings/interests onto the picture; person may indicate that the person in the picture looks really angry and upset instead of saying I feel really angry
Ekman, Paul
facial expressions - refers to displays of emotions and other clues/signals about physical and emotional states that are visible in the face; expressions are the result of the almost infinite combination of muscular contractions that combine to display emotions; includes smiles, frowns, and subtle clues that can be identified with maturity and practice
Gibson, Eleanor
visual cliff - test given to infants to see if they have developed depth perception; a platform is covered with a cloth; piece of glass or some clear material placed on top of the platform and extends off it to make a bridge; infant placed on platform and it's mother stands on the other side of the clear bridge; she calls the child, if they cross t her without thinking, they don't have depth perception, if they stop and look down before they are on the glass then they have it
Rosenthal, Robert/Jacobson, Lenore
Self-fulfilling prophecy - prediction that causes itself to come true due to the fact that the prediction was made; happens because our beliefs influence our actions
Bem, Sandra
androgyny -person exhibits both male and female behaviors, emotions; type of person is very much a mix of maleness and femaleness
Darley, John/Latane, Bibb
diffusion of response / bystander effect -person is less likely to take responsibility for action or inaction when others are present; less likely to offer help to another person when there are more people around who can help