Exam 1 - BI 208
Terms in this set (42)
Each hemoglobin can carry a maximum of one molecule of oxygen
If blood volume decreased dramatically due to massive bleeding, the autonomic nervous system will attempt to maintain cardiac output by increasing the heart rate
The left side of the heart normally pumps the same volume of blood as the right side
An electrocardiogram (ECG) provides information about valve function
Arterial pressure in the pulmonary circulation is much higher than in the systematic circulation because of its proximity to the heart
The second heart sound of each heart beat is associated with the closing of the AV valve
Thrombin catalyzes the activation of these molecules present in plasma.
Cell fragments that promote blood clotting
Ions in the plasma like sodium, potassium and chloride ions.
Condition in which blood has abnormally low oxygen-carrying capacity.
Abnormal excess of erythrocytes resulting in an increase in blood viscosity.
Free-floating thrombus in the bloodstream.
Determines the rate of contraction in a normal heart
Sino Atrial node
An abnormally slow heart rate
Difference between resting and maximal cardiac output
Prevents backflow of blood into the left ventricle
aortic semilunar valve
Prevents backflow into the right atrium.
Atrioventricular valve with two flaps
Mitral (bicupsid) valve
Volume of blood pumped per heart beat
Period when the heart cannot initiate another contraction
Absolute refractory period
Volume of blood in ventricle prior to contraction
End diastolic volume
Caused by the initial influx of Na+ into the heart muscle
When a patient's hematocrit shows an unusually large buffy coat, what is the most likely cause?
A hematopoetic stem cell will give rise to
platelet, erythrocytes, leukocytes (all of the above)
The cells responsible for producing platelets are called
The left ventricular wall of the heart is thicker than the right wall in order to
pump blood with greater pressure
Which action potential comes from a contractile from a contractile cardiac muscle cell?
Which action potential comes from a cardiac pacemaker cell?
If the AV node fails to conduct some SA node impulses...
there will be more P waves than QRS waves
The atrioventricular (AV) valves are closed...
when the ventricles are in systole
During the period of ventricular filling,
blood flows mostly passively from the atria through the AV valves into the ventricles
Given an end diastolic volume (EDV) of 120 ml and an end systolic volume (ESV) of 50 ml, the stroke volume would be
70 ml / beat
Exercise results in skeletal muscles compressing veins which encourages blood to return to the heart. In this scenario, which of the following is correct?
What is the general relationship between heart rate and age in healthy individuals?
Heart rate decreases in as individuals increase with age
What effect will an increased ventricular filling time have on Cardiac Output?
Increased cardiac output
What effect will increased circulating [Ca2+] have on Cardiac output
Increased cardiac output
What is the functional importance of the intercalated discs of cardiac muscle? Hint: for full credit, you must name and describe the function of the two structures in the intercalated discs that give it this ability
The intercalated discs are important for depolarization to move across neighboring cardiac muscle cells. The current is able to pass through gap junctions, while desmosomes aid in keep muscle cells connected.
Cardiac muscle cannot go into tetany. In the space below, explain why?
Cardiac muscle cannot undergo tetany because the absolute refractory period is almost as long as the contraction phase.
Define hemostasis and list the three steps that occur during the process.
Hemostasis is the process to stop bleeding for example a damaged tissue/vein/artery.
Step 1: The vessel will constrict (spasm)
Step 2: Platelets accumulate to form a plug
Step 3: Coagulation will occur by pathways leading to fibrin creating a mesh-like structure around the damage
Define the terms systole and diastole
Systole refers to heart contraction
Diastole refers to heart relaxation
Common equation for determining maximal heart for an individual
220 - age = maximum heart rate
What evidence was presented to suggest Albuterol did not cause Sam's tachycardia?
Sam's doctor suggested that she run without taking her albuterol inhaler and record her findings of heart rate to see if it was affecting her. Even without the albuterol, Sam had an abnormally high heart rate, indicating that albuterol was not the cause of tachycardia
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