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Psych 435 Test 4
Terms in this set (98)
A _______ schedule of reinforcement consists of the simultaneous presentation of 2 or more independent schedules, each leading to a reinforcer.
The principle that the proportion of responses emitted on a particular schedule matches the proportion of reinforcers obtained on that schedule.
-allowing a choice
what does matching law predict
a consistent relationship between the proportions of reinforcers obtained on a certain alternative and the proportion of responses emitted on that alternative
deviations from matching
3. bias from matching
This is when the preferred schedule is chosen less often than predicted by matching.
-between rich and poor schedules is less than predicted by matching
the proportion of responses on the richer schedule versus the poorer schedule is more different than would be predicted by matching
-between rich and poorer schedules is more then predicted
bias from matching
_____ ____ _______ occurs when one response alternative attracts a higher proportion of responses than would be predicted by matching, regardless of whether that alternative contains the richer or poorer schedule of reinforcement.
-one response alternative receives more response then predicted
the distribution of behavior in a choice situation shifts toward those alternatives that have higher value regardless of the long-term effect on the overall amount of reinforcement
-make better; the shift will cease matching which the 2 alternatives have about equal value
example of melioration theory
owner of a shop spends most of his time working with the easy clients, but if he would shift to the more difficult ones there would almost no loss to the business
-since the rich schedule of reinforcement provided is easy= more likely to continue with them
problem with meliorations
1. alternative may not require as much responding as 1 is distributing toward it to obtain all available reinforcers
2. overindulgence in high reinforcing
3. result of melioration is often result of behavior being too strongly associated by immediate consequences
skinner view on self control
managing conflict involves two types or response
1. controlling response
2. controlled response
- controlling your spending = leaving money at home=controlling response
-amount you spend is the controlled response
list of controlling responses
1. physical restraint
2. depriving and satiating
3. doing something else
4. self-reinforcement and self- punishment
the ability to control impulses and delay short-term gratification for greater long-term rewards.
consists of choosing a smaller sooner reward over a larger later reward
which is better immediate or delayed consequences
ex: student going out for a good time over studying. going out =immediate reward
-studying= delayed reward
preference between smaller sooner and larger later rewards can shift over time
-reward is distant= value increases slowly as delay decreases
-rewards is imminent= value increases sharply as delay decreases
example of ainslie- rachlin model
promising yourself in the morning that you will study all afternoon but spend all afternoon doing something else.
-changing your preference over time
an action carried out at an early point in time that serves to either eliminate or reduce the value of an upcoming temptation.
example commitment response
student decides in the morning that she needs to study that evening, at this early point the value of studying outweighs the value of anything else.
but when evening rolls around these have little meaning, to make sure she studies give her brother money and allows him to keep if she fails to study
aversive consequence that would result from not studying has so reduced the value of any alternative activity
According to the ______-_____-_______ effects model, each individual choice on a self-control task has only a small but cumulative effect on our likelihood of obtaining the desired long-term outcome.
example of small but cumulative effects model
following a healthy program but find yourself choosing between good food and healthy food that is less appetizing.
that one burger alone is unlikely to many any difference in becoming healthy
but healthy options long term are better for your health
In _____ learning, the behavior of a model is witnessed by an observer and the observer's behavior is subsequently changed.
-often referred to as social learning
a more-or-less instinctive or reflexive behavior triggered by the occurrence of the same behavior in another individual.
ex: yawning, laughing
* social influence
example of contagious behavior with orienting responses
while talking to someone shift your gaze over their shoulder and widen eyes for a big, slowly that person will turn around.
the probability of a behavior is changed because an individual's attention is drawn to a particular item or location by the behavior of another individual.
example stimulus enhancement
sitting in a waiting room, when a father and daughter walk in, girl emits a giggle of delight so you look up and see that she is going towards candy that you had not seen previously.
-you then help yourself to candy a few minutes later because she made you aware that the candy was there
what does stimulus enhancement do?
effective increasing the probability of a behavior associated with eating, drinking, or mating.
-these have strong instinctive components and in presence of these triggers the behavior will highly occur
what can lead to stimulus enhancement
-animals will use scent marking food sites
_____ emotional responses are classically conditioned emotional responses that result from seeing those emotional responses exhibited by others.
ex: child walking into daycare and seeing other children laughing and smiling while playing
vicarious emotional conditioning happens in two ways
1. unconditioned stimuli = reacting fearfully when other people are scared
2. higher order conditioning= emotional reactions of others serving as conditional stimuli
A form of observational learning that involves the close duplication of a novel behavior.
example of TRUE imitation
standing in a line outside of a store, women infront begins to flirt with the doorman= doorman allowing the women to enter without standing in life, therefore she gets out of line to flirt with the doorman
-if she flirts the SAME way as the previous women, which may be different from your style of flirting, this is true imitation
-SIMON SAYS= example
what does true imitation yield
increase in the frequency of behavior that had been reinforced
but also in the frequency of other behaviors that had been displayed by the model
the tendency to imitate a new modeled behavior in the absence of any specific reinforcement for doing so.
example of GENERALIZED imitation
applied behavior analysts
-used when people are deficient in their ability to learn through observation
what is the result of GENERALIZED imitation
by reinforcing the imitation of behaviors, therapists can produce a generalized tendency to imitate
is behavior that has been generated through exposure to rules.
-useful for rapid response; you do not have to drive through 100 red lights to figure out what happens
effectiveness of using rules to modify behavior
1. shape behavior
3. eventually, learn to press when sound is made
draw back from rule governed behavior
1. less effective than behavior that has been directly shaped naturally (reading a lot of books about golf, can't get better if you do not put in effort)
2. insensitive to actual contingencies of reinforcement
(being told you get paid to press a button, you press it; but never slow down to realize that such a high rate is unnecessary)
verbal descriptions of contingencies that we present to ourselves to influence our behavior
*useful in helping manage behavior
ex: I should study in the library instead of at home since its quieter
Personal Process Rules
personal rules that indicate the specific process by which a task is to be accomplished
- when, where, and how a goal is to be accomplished that can effect that goal being achieved
how are personal rules effective
they establish a bright boundary between actions that conform to the rule and those that do not
a close match between what we say we are going to do and what we actually do at a later time
the study of information processing across a variety of species, including humans
-to determine whether skills are similar/ different
the inherited predisposition to be drawn to or bond with nature, including other animals
-"love of nature" - hanging bird feeders outside windows=example
delayed matching to sample
a memory task in which the animal is first shown a sample stimulus and then, following some delay, is required to select that stimulus out of a group of alternative stimuli
similar species can have different abilities if they are subjected to different environmental demands
an understanding of quantity
a form of reasoning in which the relationship between two objects can be inferred by knowing the relationship of each to a third object
ex: Helen =richards boss, stephen=helens boss, then you can infer that Stephen is more powerful then Richard
which way do animals learn
Theory of Mind
The tendency to attribute mental states to other individuals.
-seeing oneself as separate from others and recognizing that you think different from someone else
The ability to see oneself as separate from others.
-mark and mirror task
the process of sending and receiving a signal of some sort.
A special category of communication which has some key features - symbols, syntax, and semantics - that distinguish it from other forms of communication.
A cue that is used to represent an experience or object that you can then share w/ someone else.
the ability to associate arbitrary symbols with objects or events
The system of grammatical rules by which symbols are arranged.
The meaning associated with symbols.
-refer to things that aren't currently visible/ tangible
horse Clever Hans did what?
appeared to have an understanding of quantity, but later shown that he was responding to subtle cues inadvertently
theory of mind is necessary for what
intentional cooperation and deception
Typically, one first learns to ______ an adverse stimulus, and then to _____ it.
According to the two-factor theory, avoidance is the result of a __ that elicits a CR and ____ Reinforcement.
According to the ONE-Factor theory, avoidance is the result of Negatively Reinforced _______ in overall rate of aversive stimulation.
Seligman and Maier initially proposed that learned helplessness was due to learning that an outcome (is/is not) contingent upon a response.
Behavioral approaches largely (accept/reject) the concept of willpower as an explanation for self-control.
According to the ______ law, if 25% of reinforcers are obtained on one of 2 simultaneously available schedules, then 25% of responses are likely to be emitted on that schedule.
The Ainklie-Rachlin model is based on the assumption that the value of a reward increases more and more sharply as delay ______ and attainment of the reward becomes imminent.
The matching law predicts that on a concurrent VI 15 sec VI 60 sec schedule, 80% of responses should be emitted on the VI 15 sec schedule and 20% on the VI 60 sec schedule.
A deviation from matching in which the proportion of responses on the richer schedule versus poorer schedule is less different than would be predicted by matching.
(ex: 65% to 35%, Instead of 80-20)
A _____ schedule of reinforcement consists of the simultaneous presentation of two or more independent schedules, each of which leads to a reinforcer.
The _____ law holds that the proportion of responses emitted on a particular schedule will match the proportion of reinforcers obtained on that schedule.
When the cost of switching b/w schedules is quite high, _____ matching is likely to occur.
When the cost of switching is extremely low, ______ matching is likely to occur
In general, melioration is often the result of behavior being too strongly governed by _____ consequences as opposed to _____ consequences.
According to the ______ theory, the distribution of behavior in a choice shifts toward those alternatives that have higher value regardless of the effect on the overall amount of reinforcement.
Given a choice b/w a VI 40 sec schedule and a VI 20 sec schedule, a rat is likely to emit ____ % of its responses to the VI 40 Sec alternative.
Self-control consists of preference for a _____ reward over an _____ reward.
Impulsivity consists of preference for a ______ over a _____ reward.
Ainslie-Rachlin Model of Self-Control
preference between smaller sooner and larger later rewards can shift over time
In general, as people grow from childhood into adulthood, their delay curves will likely become (more/less) deeply scalloped.
Improving your golf game by watching a video of an excellent golf player is a form of ____ learning.
A rule that includes info about how we should respond.
Smiling, yawning, laughing, and orienting when others do so are all examples of ______ behaviors.
a verbal description of a contingency
T or F:
Exposure to violent media may increase observers' violent behavior.
It may also make some observers more likely to become victims of violence.
Chimpanzees (are/are not) capable of creating new tools by modifying objects and combining objects.
The mark and mirror task is used to assess the capacity for ____.
A delayed MATCHING-TO-SAMPLE task is often used as a test of _______.
the attribution of human characteristics or behavior to a god, animal, or object.
-Something that animal researchers should avoid.
Numerosity is an understanding of _______.
T or F
Both chimps and children have a Theory of Mind.
In a direct forgetting task with pigeons, subjects tend to (recall/not recall) a stimulus that had been followed by a "FORGET" cue.
Highly social species are (better/worse) at transitive inference tasks when compared to less social species.
_____ demonstrated that children who observed violent models were (more/less) likely to behave violently themselves.
The first person to demonstrate the potential influence of the mass media on violent behavior.
Few species exhibit True Imitation.
According to the _____ law, the proportion of responses on an alternative matches the proportion of Reinforcers obtained on that alternative.
Changeover Delay (COD)
A short period of time that must pass before any response can produce a reinforcer.
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