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Exam 3 BI208
Terms in this set (42)
What structure seals the larynx when you swallow
What structural component of the trachea maintains a patent airway?
The respiratory membrane is located in this tissue
What pleural membrane surface is in direct contact with the outside surface of the lung?
What is the name of the condition that occurs when air enters into the pleural cavity leading to lung collapse?
Type II alveolar cells produce this material in the lungs?
An increase in the temperature of a tissue will cause a ________ shift in the oxygen hemoglobin saturation curve?
An increase in carbon dioxide concentration of a tissue will cause a ____ shift in the oxygen hemoglobin bindingcurve
The binding of carbon monoxide to hemoglobin produces a _____ shift in the oxygen hemoglobin binding curve
This is the measure of the amount of blood in the pulmonary capillaries
This is a measure of the amount of gas that moves into or out of the respiratory tract in one minute
This is the measure of the amount of gas reaching the alveoli
Conducting portion of the respiratory tract immediately posterior to the tongue
Most superior portion of the pharynx
Conducting portion of the respiratory tract anterior to the esophagus
One of the first lines of defense against infection
An internal secondary defense against bacterial pathogens
A protein made by cells infected with virus
All of the following are considered innate body defenses except
The process by which neutraphils squeeze through capillary walls or post-capillary venule walls in response to inflammatory signals is called:
The detergent-like substance that keeps the alveoli from collapsing between breaths because it reduces the surface tension of the water film in the alveoli is called:
When inspiratory muscle contract,
the size of the thoracic cavity increases in volume
Most oxygen carried in the blood is
chemically combined with the heme in red blood cells
The nutrient blood supply of the lungs is provided by
the bronchial arteries
When carbon dioxide-rich blood reaches the pulmonary capillaries inside the lungs, which of the following events occur?
- Chloride ions (Cl-) leave the erythrocytes and bicarbonate ions (HCO3-) enter the erythrocytes
- Carbon dioxide is formed through the action of enzyme carbonic anhyrdrase
- Carbon dioxide diffuses out of the blood and into the alveolus
(All of the above events occur in the pulmonary capillaries)
The process of gas exchange in the systemic capillaries can be referred to as
Oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged in the lungs and through all cell membranes by
What will happen when the intrapulmonary pressure (Ppul) becomes greater than atmospheric pressure (Patm)?
Expiration will occur
When a patient receives pure oxygen by mask, what happens to the diameter of the arterioles supplying blood to the capillaries surrounding the alveoli?
The pO2 in the alveoli is significantly lower than the pO2 in the atmosphere
Carbon monoxide has a higher affinity for hemoglobin than oxygen does
Delivery of O2 and removal of CO2 are the two primary functions of the respiratory system
Human skin is one of the first two lines of defense against disease
Inflammation always occurs following tissue injury
The mucosa of the respiratory tract within the trachea is composed of
Ciliated columnar epithelia
The dotted lines in the two graphs represent a shift in the oxygen hemoglobin dissociation curve. Which shift would allow greater oxygen delivery to the tissues?
Boyle's law provides the relationship between the pressure and the volume of a gas and is represented by: P1V1 = P2V2
Inhalation begins when the inspiratory muscles contract, this will increase the thoracic cavity by length and diameter (overall increased volume). An increased volume will decrease the pressure within the lungs, forcing the air to move into the lungs. As volume increases, pressure decreases, this combination causes air to move into the lungs. The opposite occurs during expiration when volume decreases, pressure increases, forcing air out of the lungs,
Using this information, explain how the majority of the carbon dioxide produced by the body is transported to the lungs. (hint: what form is the CO2 in during the journey from the tissues to the lungs)
The majority of the CO2 produced is transported as bicarbonate ions (HCO3-) when CO2 combines with water, it forms carbonic acid (H2CO3) which dissociates into the H+ ions and HCO3-. This mechanism will also decrease pH in the blood, making it more acidic.
The cytoplasm of erythrocytes contains the enxyme carbonic anhydrase. What is the role of the enzyme in the process of CO2 transport? (Hint: what step of the process does it catalyze?)
Carbonic anhydrase catalyzes the formation of carbonic acid from H2O and CO2
On average, how many oxygen molecules will still be bound to each molecule of hemoglobin as the erythrocyte leaves the capillary beds in the skeletal muscle tissue?
1/4 of the oxygen molecules will be bound (~25% saturation) when the RBC leave the capillary beds
"Caught Red Handed"
Explain why carbon monoxide poisoning causes the body to turn cherry red?
Cherry red skin is caused by the shape that hemoglobin turns when bound to CO instead of O2. The CO binding shape causes a different absorption of light leading to a bright red color instead of a dark red.
With respect to hemoglobin, how might carbon monoxide exposure lead to hypoxic tissue injuries and eventually death?
CO has a higher affinity for hemoglobin than oxygen and readily binds to it. Not only does this displace oxygen binding, it causes a left shift for the oxygen already bound. This makes oxygen affinity so tight that there can be no oxygen delivery to tissues, leading to death. The O2 is unable to release from hemoglobin.
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