BIOL 3103 Final Review

ionotropic receptors
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Terms in this set (194)
Liver in stressConverts glycogen to glucosePancreas in stressReleases Glucagon in stresslabelled linesthe concept that each nerve input to the brain reports only a particular type of informationganglioncollection of nerve cell bodies in the peripheral nervous systemTransductionThe process of converting outside stimuli, such as light, into neural activitytonic vs phasic receptors*Tonic receptors* show slow or no decline in action potential frequency. *Phasic receptors* adapt quickly by decreased frequency.statolithIn invertebrates, a dense particle that settles in response to gravity and is found in sensory organs that function in equilibrium.otolithssmall crystals in the fluid-filled vestibular sacs of the inner ear that, when shifted by gravity, stimulate nerve cells that inform the brain of the position of the headglomeruliSites in the brain's olfactory bulb where signals from the smell receptors converge.adenylate cyclaseconverts ATP to cAMPT tubulestubular infoldings of the sarcolemma which penetrate through the cell and emerge on the other sideTroponinA protein of muscle that together with tropomyosin forms a regulatory protein complex controlling the interaction of actin and myosin and that when combined with calcium ions permits muscular contractionTropomyosinA protein of muscle that forms a complex with troponin regulating the interaction of actin and myosin in muscular contractionActinthin filaments on sarcomereMyosinthick filaments on sarcomeresarcoplasmic reticulumOrganelle of the muscle fiber that stores calcium.transverse tubulesSystem of tubules that provides channels for ion flow throughout the muscle fibers to facilitate the propagation of an action potential.ryanodine receptorcalcium-release channel found in the lateral sacs of the sarcoplasmic reticulum in skeletal muscle cellsDihydropyridine receptorName of voltage-sensitive muscle cell (T-tubule membrane) receptor that is coupled to a sarcoplasmic membrane receptorSERCA-2Uses ATP to pump calcium back into the sarcoplasmic reticulumTitinA series elastic component protein responsible for allowing the sarcomere to stretch and recoilCalsequestrincalcium-binding protein within the sarcoplasmic reticulum which aids in storage of intracellular Ca2+PhosphorcreatineStorage molecules for phosphate; can anaerobically donate PO4 to ADP to create ATPspindle fibersDetect muscle stretchGolgi tendon organsdetect muscle tensionslow oxidative fiberscontract slowly, have slow acting myosin ATPases, and are fatigue resistantfast oxidative fiberscontract quickly, have fast myosin ATPases, and have moderate resistance to fatiguefast glycolytic fiberscontract quickly, have fast myosin ATPase, and are easily fatiguedPlasmaLiquid part of bloodPlateletsUsed for blood clottingmammalian red blood cellsBlood cell :not nucleated; small and disc shapedBird red blood cellsBlood cell: nucleateed; medium sized and oval shaped.Hemostasisstoppage of bleedingPlateletsThese adhere to and are activated by exposed collagenFibrinogenplasma protein that is converted to fibrin in the clotting processPlasminan enzyme that dissolves the fibrin of blood clotsMonocytesAn agranular leukocyte that is able to migrate into tissues and transform into a macrophage.Granulocytesneutrophils, eosinophils, basophilsThrombocytesplateletsBohr effectThe tendency of certain factors to stablize the hemoglobin in the tense conformation, thus reducing its affinity for oxygen and enhancing the relase of oxygen to the tissues. The factors include increased PCO2, increase temperature, increased bisphosphoglycerate (BPG), and decreased pH. Note that the Bohr effect shifts the oxy-hemolobin saturation curve to the right.lymphatic systemthe network of vessels through which lymph drains from the tissues into the heart2 chambersfrog heart3 chambered heartAvian and mammal heart4 chambered heartRight half of heartpumps deoxygenated blood to the lungsLeft half of heartpumps oxygenated blood to the lungsfrank sterling law of the heartsays the greater the volume of blood within the ventricle the greater the force of contractionsystolic pressureBlood pressure in the arteries during contraction of the ventricles.diastolic pressureBlood pressure that remains between heart contractions.cardiac outputThe volume of blood ejected from the left side of the heart in one minute.baroreceptor reflexThe primary reflex pathway for homeostatic control of blood pressureP waveatrial depolarization/ contractionsQRS waveventricular depolarization/ contractionsT waveventricular repolarizationsinoatrial nodepacemaker of the heartatrioventricular nodea node of specialized heart muscle located in the septal wall of the right atriumBundle of Hisa bundle of modified heart muscle that transmits the cardiac impulse from the atrioventricular node to the ventricles causing them to contractPurkinje fibersfibers in the ventricles that transmit impulses to the right and left ventricles, causing them to contractDaveDorsal Afferent Ventral EfferentForebrainBrain: Receives and integrates sensory informationMidbrainBrain: Coordinates reflex responses to sights and soundsHindbrainBrain: Reflex control of respiration, blood circulation, and other basic tasksSpinocerebellumCerebellum: Enhances muscle tone and coordinates skilled, voluntary movementsCerebrocerebellumCerebellum: plans voluntary muscle activityVestibulocerebellumCerebellum: maintenance of balance, control of eye movementsneurogenesisthe formation of new neuronsSourNa+ channels and Cl- channelsSaltyNa+ channels, proton transport directly into the cellSweet2n messenger G-proteinbitterG-protein with blockage of potassium effluxumamiLigand gated with CaDefensinsProteins that are inserted into bacterial membranes to form poresOpsoninsProteins that tag invaders for phagocytic cellsNeutrophilsA type of white blood cell that engulfs invading microbes and contributes to the nonspecific defenses of the body against disease.mast cellsCells that release chemicals (such as histamine) that promote inflammation.CytokinesChemicals released by the immune system communicate with the brain.endogenous pyrogensResponsible for inducing feverantigen presenting cellsdendritic cells, macrophages, B cellsT helper cellsCells that release signalling molecules to stimulate the immune responseB lymphocytesform in the bone marrow and release antibodies that fight bacterial infectionsCytotoxic T cellsA type of lymphocyte that kills infected body cells and cancer cellsMHC 1 proteinsCell surface proteins that display protein fragments from INSIDE a cell to white blood cells outside the cell. Cells with normal proteins are ignored, cells with foreign proteins are destroyed.MHC 2 proteinsCell surface proteins that display protein fragments from OUTSIDE a cell to white blood cells outside the cell. Cells with normal proteins are ignored, cells with foreign proteins are destroyed.Growth hormoneStimulates production of insulin growth factorAdrenocorticotropic hormoneStimulates adrenal cortex to secrete cortisolT3 and T4thyroid hormones that are detected by the hypothalamus; hypothalamus secretes TRH to cause pituitary to release TSH if levels of T3 an T4 are low.StressHypothalamus secretes CRH; pituitary secretes ACTH; adrenal cortex releases cortisolsuprachiasmatic nucleusa pair of cell clusters in the hypothalamus that controls circadian rhythmType 1 diabetesdiabetes in which no beta-cell production of insulin occurs and the patient is dependent on insulin for survivalType 2 diabetesprogressive disorder in which body cells become less responsive to insulinOsteoclasts and osteoblastsFree calcium in BonesDistal convoluted tubulesFree calcium in KidneysVitamin DFree calcium in Digestive systemtidal volumeAmount of air that moves in and out of the lungs during a normal breathbook lungsOrgans of gas exchange in spiders, consisting of stacked plates contained in an internal chamber.tracheaetiny tubes in insect body that deliver oxygen directly to metabolizing tissuesFirst Air BreathersTropical lowlandsAlveolitiny sacs of lung tissue specialized for the movement of gases between air and bloodtype 1 alveolar cellssimple squamous cells where gas exchange occurstype 2 alveolar cellssecrete surfactantdorsal respiratory group (DRG)Inspiratory center Functions in quiet and forced breathingventral respiratory group (VRG)Expiratory center active breathingPre-Botzinger complexgenerates respiratory rhythmpneumotaxic center and apneustic centersituated in the pons; do not generate primary rhythm, but act as modifiers of the inspiratory depth and rate established in the medullary centerscentral chemoreceptorsbrainstem neurons that respond to changes in pH of cerebrospinal fluidUreamajor nitrogenous waste excreted in urine less toxic solubleUric acidnitrogenous waste excreted in the urine not toxic antioxidantAmonotelydirect excretion of ammonia (fish), little energyureotelyurea excretion (mammals)UricotelyExcretion of uric acid (birds), lots of energyGills actively transport NaCl outward and excrete nitrogenous wasteHow do marine animals adapt to different environments for excretory functionsGills take in NaCl and excrete NH3/NH4How do freshwater animals adapt to different environments for excretory functions?Malpighian tubes secrete K+ and Na+ with it.How do terrestrial animals adapt to different environments for excretory functions?cortical nephronsNephrons located almost entirely in the renal cortex. These nephrons have a reduced loop of Henle.juxtamedullary nephronsnephrons with well-developed loops of Henle that extend deeply into the renal medullaglomerulusA ball of capillaries surrounded by Bowman's capsule in the nephron and serving as the site of filtration in the vertebrate kidney.Blood pressure and Vasodilation on the afferent arterioleWhat is filtration pressure affected by?messangial cellsWhat is glomerular permeability affected by?afferent arterioleThe small artery that carries blood toward the capillaries of the glomerulus.efferent arterioleThe small artery that carries blood away from the capillaries of the glomerulus.GFRglomerular filtration ratejuxtaglomerular apparatusSpecialized cells next to the glomerulus that help to regulate blood pressureA normal blood protein produced by the liver, angiotensin is converted to angiotensin I by renin (secreted by kidney when blood pressure falls). Angiotensin I is further converted to angiotensin II by ACE (angiotensin converting enzyme). Angiotensin II is a powerful systemic vasoconstrictor and stimulator of aldosterone release, both of which result in an increase in blood pressure.Renin-Angiotensin-Aldesterone AxisAngiotensin IItriggers thirst and salt hungerAldesterone*CONTROLS THE REABSORPTION OF SODIUM BY KIDNEYS *WATER FOLLOWS SODIUM *FLUID GAINED OR LOST ACCORDING TO NEEDBowman's capsulecup-shaped structure in the upper end of a nephron that encases the glomerulusproximal convoluted tubulefirst section of the renal tubule that the blood flows through; reabsorption of water, ions, and all organic nutrientsdistal convoluted tubuleBetween the loop of Henle and the collecting duct; Selective reabsorption and secretion occur here, most notably to regulate reabsorption of water and sodiumascending loop of henlePortion of the nephron not permeable to water. A filtrate flows up the ascending limp through decreasing concentration of the interstitial fluid, Na+ is actively pumped out of the filtrate, decreasing filtrate concentration.descending loop of henleLoop reabsorption of watercollecting ductA segment of the nephron that returns water form the filtrate to the bloodstream.proximal tubuleWhere is most of the reabsorption of most substances?Vasopressinantidiuretic hormonemotilityMovement of food into the midgutSecretionAcidic DigestionDigestionBasic digestionAbsorptionassimilationsalivary glandsparotid, sublingual, and submandibular glandscephalic digestionAnticipatory secretion of HCl and pepsinogen due to food related stimuliGastic digestionProtein, distension, and glucose are stimuli acting on stomach. Mechanism and Chem digestion.intestinal digestionExcitatory component is the presence of protein in the duodenum. Inhibitory component are the same factors that inhibit gastric motilityPepsinogen, HCl, and gastrinWhat neurotransmitters and hormones are involved in cephalic digestion?SomatostatinWhat neurotransmitters and hormones are involved in Gastric digestion?secretin and cholecystokininWhat neurotransmitters and hormones are involved in Intestinal digestion?Gastrin directly increases chief and parietal cell activity as well as histamine which itself increases chief and parietal cells.What regulatory feedback loops are in place for cephalic digestion?High acidity, decreased parietal, G and EGl cellsWhat regulatory feedback loops are in place for Gastric digestion?Secretion of aqueous NaHCO3 solution into the duodenal lumen neutralizes acid in the duodenal lumen. Secretion of pancreatic digestive enzymes into the duodenal lumen digests fat and prot prod in duodenal lumen.What regulatory feedback loops are in place for Intestinal digestion?Being aromatic on the plate in front of you. mouth.Where is the food and when is the cephalic system activated?In the stomachWhere is the food and when is the gastric system activated?duodenumWhere is the food and when is the intestinal system activated?PepsinAn enzyme present in gastric juice that begins the hydrolysis of proteinschief cellssecrete pepsinogen (precursor to pepsin)H+ is produced from water in parietal cells and transported into the gastric lumen w/ ATP and coupling K+ transport Cl- is transported from the plasma into the parietal cell through secondary active transport and into the gastric lumenHow do parietal cells produce HCl?digestive function of liverbile productionProteases (Trypsin and Chymotrypsin) break down proteinsHow do proteins get broken down and absorbed?lipases release fatty acids from triglycerides breaking down fats. Fats absorbed by lactealsHow do fats get broken down and absorbed?Disaccharidases break down specific disaccharides; these are then absorbedHow do sugars get broken down and absorbed?Synthesize vitamins like vitamin KWhat do symbiotic bacteria do in the large intestine of a mammal?Break down and synthesize bacterial proteins into/from amino acidsWhat do symbiotic bacteria do in the stomach of a ruminant?sexual vs asexual reproductionAsexual reproduction generates offspring that are genetically identical to a single parent. In sexual reproduction, two parents contribute genetic information to produce unique offspring.Muller's Ratchetaccumulation of deleterious mutations in lineages that lack genetic recombinationhermaphroditean organism that has both male and female reproductive organsparthenogenesisAsexual reproduction in which females produce offspring from unfertilized determinationmales are XY, females are XXChromosomal sex-determining systemX and Y separate into different sperm cells, while egg cells all get a single X. Sex is associated with the inheritance of a particular chromosomesry genethe sex determining region of the Y chromosome in males. Encodes the testis-determining factor, which turns the primordial gonads into the testesWolfian vs Mullerian ductsMullerin- gives rise to female reproductive parts Wolfian- gives rise to male reproductive partsFollical Stimulating Hormone (FSH)stimulates production of spermluteinizing hormone (LH) malesstimulates production of testosteroneThe interstitial cells between the seminiferous tubulesWhere is testosterone produced?estrus cycleThe length of a females cycle from one estrus to the nextacrosomeA vesicle at the tip of a sperm cell that helps the sperm penetrate the egg. Allows 1Placentaan organ that develops in your uterus during pregnancy. This structure provides oxygen and nutrients to your growing baby and removes waste products from your baby's blood.chorionOutermost layer of the two membranes surrounding the embryo; it forms the fetal part of the placenta.oxytocin and prolactinWhat hormones are involved in birth and lactation?amino acidsWhat is typically reabsorbed in the kidney by facilitated diffusion?detrusor muscleWhat muscles contract during urination?Increased sodium reabsorptionAn increase in the sodium/ potassium pumps in the basolateral membrane of nephron epithelial cells would lead to an increase in what?Ascending limb of the loop of henleWhere is water permeability normally lowest?from blood plasma into the glomerular filtrateRenal secretion is the moving of substances....WaterWhat is reabsorbed in the kidneys using secondary active transport?Promixal tubulesWhere is most secretion of potassium?more water channels (aquaporins) in collecting duct cellsIncreased secretion of antidiuretic hormone leads to what?OsmolarityAn increase in what would increase the secretion of antidiuretic hormone?