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66 terms

Sociology test 1

STUDY
PLAY
study, individual, society, difference
Four component definition of Sociology: systematic _____, _____, _____, consequences of ________
systematic
Sociology: the _________ study of the relationship between the individual and society and of the consequences of difference.
Mills
Who created the idea of the " Sociological imagination"? Wright ______
natural, social
2 sciences discussed in class: _____ and _____
social
Science that sociology is:_______
protestant
Who's most likely to commit suicide according to Dunkheim: catholic or protestant?
large
What is macro sociology: ___ scale
small
Micro sociology is_____ scale
functionalist
One of the three approaches of sociology linked with Durkheim is _______.
conflict
One of the three approaches of sociology linked with Marx _______.
interactionist
One of the three approaches of sociology linked with Goffman is _______.
systematic
Sociologists draw their conclusions about society based on experiences or observations rather than beliefs or the authority of others. This is the definition associated with ______ study.
agency
the freedom people have to choose and to act.
individual
Individuals are the building blocks of society with people constantly choosing what to do next. This is the definition associated with the ______ .
society
______ consists of persistent patterns of relationships and social networks within which we operate. These patterns and relationships are much like a building.
dyads, groups, networks, social
Society can be broken down into segments or levels: _____ , _____, _____, and _______ institutions.
difference
Sociology also looks at how economic, social, and cultural resources are distributed and at the consequences of these patterns. This is the definition associated with the consequence of ______ .
social
______ theory represents sociologists' attempts to tell the stories of our lives but they do so in a particular way. It can start as general and vague.
applied
______ sociology is the use of the discipline of sociology with the specific intent of yielding practical application for human behavior and organizations.
clinical
_______ sociology is dedicated to facilitating change by altering social relationships or restructuring social institutions.
direct
Unlike applied sociologists, clinical sociologists take _____ responsibility for implementation and view those with whom they work as their clients.
looking
Practicing sociology is about so much more than a career; it is a way of _______ at the world around us and understanding its complexity and interconnections in a new way.
verb
Sociology is a _____.
heart
At the _____ of sociology is the relationship or interaction between the individual and society.
interdependence
We may like to think that we can make it on our own, but our individualism is made possible by our __________.
engaged
Sociologists are _______with the world, gathering empirical data through systematic research.
problem, review, formulate, collect, conclusion
5 steps in the sociological research process: define the _____, ____ the literature, ______ the hypothesis, select and _____ the design and data, develop the _____.
measurable
An operational definition is to make something abstract into something ______.
independent
An _____ variable causes or influences something.
dependent
The variable that is affected is known as the ________ variable (y) because change in it depends on the influence of the independent variable.
correlation
_________ simply describes a relationship between two variables. It does not imply causality. How it's related.
causation
A cause and effect relationship in which one variable controls the changes in another variable. It caused it to happen.
control
A _______ variable is a factor that is held constant to test the relative impact of an independent variable.
quantitative
_______research collects and reports data primarily in numerical form. It typically involves statistics. Ex. surveys, content and secondary analysis.
qualitative
_______research relies on what researchers see in the field and naturalistic setting. It uses words. Ex. observation, interviews, experiments.
survey
Most frequently used research method is a ______.
experiment
Most least used research method is an ______.
Ethnography
_________is a form of participant observation and the researcher fully informs his subjects of his presence and purpose.
cultural imperialism
______ _______-to exert their own views on the group being observed.
native
______-become too involved with the group under study
value
______ neutrality-to the objectivity of sociologists in the interpretation of data. Don't let own bias influence results.
effect
Hypotheses are built upon cause-and-______relationships, and researchers who formulate a hypothesis generally suggest how one variable influences or affects another.
sample
Technically speaking, a _______ is a selection from a larger population that is statistically representative of that population.
research ethics
The American Sociological Association (ASA) puts forth the following basic principles: Maintain objectivity and integrity in research, Respect the subject's right to privacy and dignity, Protect subjects from personal harm, Preserve confidentiality, Seek informed consent, Acknowledge research collaboration and assistance, Disclose all sources of financial support are part of something called ____ _____
mores
______ are norms deemed highly necessary to the welfare of society, often because they embody the most cherished principles of a people. A type of informal norm.
folkways
_______are norms governing everyday behavior such as etiquette. A type of informal norm.
formal
_____ norms are laws.
informal
_______ norms are generally understood but not precisely recorded (written down). Proper dress is an example
values
_____ are the collective conceptions of what is considered good, desirable, and proper - or bad, undesirable, and improper - in a culture.
Ethnocentrism
________ refers to the tendency to assume to one's own culture and way of life represents the norm or is superior to all others - they are normal.
cultural
_______ relativism refers to viewing people's behavior from the perspective of their own culture. It places a priority on understanding other cultures.
culture
_______ is something we create - it's fluid and can be changed. It consists of the totality of our shared language, knowledge, material objects, and behavior. It's a survival skill.
Sanctions
______ are penalties and rewards for conduct concerning a social norm.
transmission
Were it not for the social __________ of culture, each generation would have to start from scratch, reinventing not just the wheel but all other forms of culture as well.
cultural universals
________ ________refer to common practices and beliefs shared by all societies. Examples include sports, cooking, funeral ceremonies, medicine, marriage, and sexual restrictions.
Material
_____ culture refers to the physical or technological aspects of our daily lives, including food, houses, factories, and raw materials. It can be seen as the things we make and what we make them with. Ex. technology
Non-material
________ culture refers to the ways of using material objects and to customs, ideas, expressions, beliefs, knowledge, philosophies, governments, and patterns of communication.
everywhere
Even for those who live close to nature, material culture is _______.
dominant
_______ ideology is a set of cultural beliefs and practices that legitimate existing powerful social, economic, and political interests.
comte
August ____ cam up with the word sociology in 1838.
macro
Functionalist is society are structured to maintain its stability and conflict is perspective emphasizes the distribution of power and the allocation of resources in society are part of _____ sociology.
micro
Interactionist is perspective generalizes about everyday forms of social interaction in order to explain society as a whole is part of ____ sociology.
diffusion
Spread of culture is called _______.
language
most powerful is _______. Lets us work with collection action.
cultural lag
situation in which some aspects of the culture change less rapidly, or lag behind, other aspects of the same culture
norms
rules and expectations by which a society guides the behavior of its members. Put in place to uphold values.