study, individual, society, difference
Four component definition of Sociology: systematic _____, _____, _____, consequences of ________
Sociology: the _________ study of the relationship between the individual and society and of the consequences of difference.
Sociologists draw their conclusions about society based on experiences or observations rather than beliefs or the authority of others. This is the definition associated with ______ study.
Individuals are the building blocks of society with people constantly choosing what to do next. This is the definition associated with the ______ .
______ consists of persistent patterns of relationships and social networks within which we operate. These patterns and relationships are much like a building.
dyads, groups, networks, social
Society can be broken down into segments or levels: _____ , _____, _____, and _______ institutions.
Sociology also looks at how economic, social, and cultural resources are distributed and at the consequences of these patterns. This is the definition associated with the consequence of ______ .
______ theory represents sociologists' attempts to tell the stories of our lives but they do so in a particular way. It can start as general and vague.
______ sociology is the use of the discipline of sociology with the specific intent of yielding practical application for human behavior and organizations.
_______ sociology is dedicated to facilitating change by altering social relationships or restructuring social institutions.
Unlike applied sociologists, clinical sociologists take _____ responsibility for implementation and view those with whom they work as their clients.
Practicing sociology is about so much more than a career; it is a way of _______ at the world around us and understanding its complexity and interconnections in a new way.
At the _____ of sociology is the relationship or interaction between the individual and society.
We may like to think that we can make it on our own, but our individualism is made possible by our __________.
Sociologists are _______with the world, gathering empirical data through systematic research.
problem, review, formulate, collect, conclusion
5 steps in the sociological research process: define the _____, ____ the literature, ______ the hypothesis, select and _____ the design and data, develop the _____.
The variable that is affected is known as the ________ variable (y) because change in it depends on the influence of the independent variable.
_________ simply describes a relationship between two variables. It does not imply causality. How it's related.
A cause and effect relationship in which one variable controls the changes in another variable. It caused it to happen.
A _______ variable is a factor that is held constant to test the relative impact of an independent variable.
_______research collects and reports data primarily in numerical form. It typically involves statistics. Ex. surveys, content and secondary analysis.
_______research relies on what researchers see in the field and naturalistic setting. It uses words. Ex. observation, interviews, experiments.
_________is a form of participant observation and the researcher fully informs his subjects of his presence and purpose.
______ neutrality-to the objectivity of sociologists in the interpretation of data. Don't let own bias influence results.
Hypotheses are built upon cause-and-______relationships, and researchers who formulate a hypothesis generally suggest how one variable influences or affects another.
Technically speaking, a _______ is a selection from a larger population that is statistically representative of that population.
The American Sociological Association (ASA) puts forth the following basic principles: Maintain objectivity and integrity in research, Respect the subject's right to privacy and dignity, Protect subjects from personal harm, Preserve confidentiality, Seek informed consent, Acknowledge research collaboration and assistance, Disclose all sources of financial support are part of something called ____ _____
______ are norms deemed highly necessary to the welfare of society, often because they embody the most cherished principles of a people. A type of informal norm.
_______ norms are generally understood but not precisely recorded (written down). Proper dress is an example
_____ are the collective conceptions of what is considered good, desirable, and proper - or bad, undesirable, and improper - in a culture.
________ refers to the tendency to assume to one's own culture and way of life represents the norm or is superior to all others - they are normal.
_______ relativism refers to viewing people's behavior from the perspective of their own culture. It places a priority on understanding other cultures.
_______ is something we create - it's fluid and can be changed. It consists of the totality of our shared language, knowledge, material objects, and behavior. It's a survival skill.
Were it not for the social __________ of culture, each generation would have to start from scratch, reinventing not just the wheel but all other forms of culture as well.
________ ________refer to common practices and beliefs shared by all societies. Examples include sports, cooking, funeral ceremonies, medicine, marriage, and sexual restrictions.
_____ culture refers to the physical or technological aspects of our daily lives, including food, houses, factories, and raw materials. It can be seen as the things we make and what we make them with. Ex. technology
________ culture refers to the ways of using material objects and to customs, ideas, expressions, beliefs, knowledge, philosophies, governments, and patterns of communication.
_______ ideology is a set of cultural beliefs and practices that legitimate existing powerful social, economic, and political interests.
Functionalist is society are structured to maintain its stability and conflict is perspective emphasizes the distribution of power and the allocation of resources in society are part of _____ sociology.
Interactionist is perspective generalizes about everyday forms of social interaction in order to explain society as a whole is part of ____ sociology.
situation in which some aspects of the culture change less rapidly, or lag behind, other aspects of the same culture