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SFL 110 Final
Terms in this set (227)
Grocery shopping less frequently, using a shopping list and buying food items on sale call all help control food costs.
When first learning to prepare foods, a time plan is a waste of time because it's almost impossible to follow.
As economic situations worsen, people tend to eat more meals at home.
Which of the following is a risk factor associated with being overweight or obese?
Which of the following is a guideline for choosing nutrient-dense foods?
Increase fruit and vegetable intake.
At least half of grains consumed should be whole grains.
Select low-fat or fat-free dairy products.
What type of ethnic restaurants are usually found in American cities?
A breakfast of pancakes, bacon, orange slices and milk is lacking a variety of both color and texture.
Unit pricing of items on grocery store shelves is:
useful in making choices between brands and between container sizes.
Among careers involving food are:
Open dating refers to a consumer aid that indicates freshness of a product.
Additives are used in foods for the following reasons:
Improve nutrition and flavor
Extend shelf life and control pH
Improve color and texture
Convection baking uses the circulation of heated air.
How long can an opened package of lunch meat safely be stored in the refrigerator?
Which of the following is needed to properly clean dishes?
hot water rinse
One cup of oats is best measured by using:
a measuring cup.
For safe storage of refrigerated items, the refrigerator temperature should not get above (x) degrees fahrenheit.
Food-borne illness can be caused by bacteria, but not by a virus.
There are (x) tablespoons in one cup.
High elevation can have an effect on food preparation.
Which of the following is an effective way to prevent food-borne illness?
Wash hands before cooking.
Keep hot foods hot and cold foods cold.
Discard food that is obviously contaminated.
The price of fresh fruits and vegetables is not affected by the season.
Which of the following are good for long-term storage?
Apples and oranges
Low acid foods, like meat and vegetables, need to be processed in a pressure canner.
Which of the following is NOT a method of preserving foods at home?
To maintain nutrients when cooking vegetables, cook quickly with plenty of water.
When classified, apples fall in the (x) group.
When classified, broccoli falls in the (x) group.
leaves and stems
A dietary benefit of eating fruits and vegetables is:
they are a source of vitamins and minerals.
they are a source of fiber and phytochemicals.
they are generally low in fat.
All fruits and vegetables should be covered and stored in the refrigerator.
Fresh, canned and frozen fruits can always be used interchangeably in recipes with no adjustments needed.
When oil is used over and over for frying, the smoke point is:
Hydrogenation is done to:
change oils to a solid state.
A key difference between shortening and margarine is a difference in content of:
Deep fat frying
Salad oil (also known as vegetable oil)
A spread for toast that is both low-calorie and low-fat
Whipped butter or margarine
9 calories per gram
Because it goes rancid quickly at room temperature, olive oil should be purchased in small quantities and used quickly or stored in the refrigerator.
Margarine and butter are both examples of animal fats.
Diet margarine is usually an unsatisfactory fat choice for baked or fried goods
Homogenization destroys harmful organisms in milk.
What minerals are found in highest amounts in dairy products?
Calcium and phosphorus.
When cooking any food items that include cheese, avoid high temperatures and keep heating time to a minimum.
Milk, cheese and yogurt are all sources of incomplete protein.
The scum that can form on cooked milk consists primarily of:
The flavor of natural cheese is more distinct than that of process cheese.
When making and freezing ice cream in a conventional freezer, use
The sugar in cow's milk is:
Sweetened condensed milk and evaporated milk can be used interchangeably in recipes.
To avoid scorching, keep heating time to a minimum and stir when cooking with milk and dairy products.
Beef is a source of complete protein.
Dry heat methods are the only way to prepare poultry.
The only way to determine if the fish you are buying is fresh is to ask the salesperson.
Which of the following is a moist heat method of cooking?
For best results when roasting a turkey, the turkey should be:
on a V-shaped rack in an uncovered pan.
Grading of meats is mandatory, while inspection is at the discretion of the packers.
In beef, the cuts of meat that are more tender come from the:
Which part of the bird is the most expensive?
The best way to cook a less tender cut of meat is with (x) heat.
Beef is a source of unsaturated fat.
To avoid lumps when making a white sauce, you should
follow the recipe carefully, stirring around the sides and bottom of the pan.
Contains protein which form gluten
Controls yeast growth
If you forget to pre-heat the oven for making yeast breads, you will still get good results if you put the formed loaf in a cold oven.
Most grains and grain products are best stored in a cool, dry place.
Which of the following is NOT an example of a quick bread?
For fluffy rice, the best choice is
long grain rice.
Refined grains are enriched with nutrients that were lost in the milling process.
The best method for adding water to pastry dough is:
add water throughout the dough, not just in one spot
Shortened cakes should cool some in the pan before being removed.
When baking cakes at high altitudes, increase leavening and reduce liquid.
The structure of baked products comes from
Foam cakes are cooled upside down to stretch foam cells and strengthen cake structure.
Shortened cakes generally have less fat than foam cakes.
Too much water in pastry will cause the pastry to be
Angel food cakes use both egg white and egg yolk foams.
Because the formulas for making cookies are not as sensitive as those for making cakes, you can adjust cookie recipe ingredients and instructions and still have a high quality end product.
You must have a pastry blender to make pastry dough.
Honey is the only natural sweetener from an animal source.
Using ingredients from a traditional kitchen and a standard recipe, which of the following ingredients DOES NOT act as an interfering agent?
White table sugar (sucrose)
The primary sources of granulated white sugar are
sugar beets and sugarcane.
Raw sugar is significantly more nutritious than granulated sugar.
While many people blame high fructose corn syrup for obesity in America, excess empty calories are the main problem, not high fructose corn syrup.
to attract water.
The temperature of candy rises as it boils because
the concentration of sugar is increased.
Carbohydrates have twice as many calories per gram as fats.
In candy-making, interfering agents
inhibit crystal formation.
The change that sugar undergoes when subjected to very intense heat is called
Which utensil(s) are placed to the right of the plate?
Knife & Spoon
Most often, the person to watch for etiquette cues is the
host or hostess.
Blue plate service
Plates are served in the kitchen and brought to the table.
Similar to family service, but a waiter or waitress is used.
The least formal type of table service, with serving dishes placed on the table.
Host serves each plate from a stack of plates in front of him/her.
Usually place-mats provide a less formal dining atmosphere than a tablecloth.
Every buffet should be set up so guests go down one side of the table only.
Which utensil(s) are placed to the left of the plate?
If more than one fork is at a place setting, the fork to be used first is
the fork on the far left.
An item that stores sell at or below cost to lure you into the store, hoping that you'll purchase more items
New diet guidelines website
Insulation, protection, reserve energy
What does protein do?
Builds and repairs body tissue
Role of vitamins
Assists in biochemical reactions related to metabolic process
Role of minerals
Digestion of food
Half of all grains should be
Aim for Fitness
Build a Healthy Base
Seven Main Differences between families
Successful Meal Planning
Resolve to make the effort
Pick a planning style to suit personality
Make a shopping list
Cook perishables first
Grade your efforts
Aesthetic guidelines of meal planning
Size and shape
Tips for Successful Cooking
Budgeting and shopping strategies
Convenience foods and eating out
When walking with knife, knife should be pointed down and by your side.
Immediately sanitize after use
Don't hone anywhere
Four ways to cut onions
Types of knives
Temperature of Meat types
Eggs/Ground beef - 160 degrees
Ground turkey/chicken - 170 degrees
Beef Steak - Medium Rare -
Medium Rare - 145 degrees
Medium - 160 degrees
Well done - 170 degrees
Spoiled food like fish/raw honey
Canned goods not properly processed/dented/budging
Unpasteurized milk and raw ground beef
Raw juices/unpasteurized milk/raw meat
Raw meats and eggs
180 degrees can get rid of bacteria
Holding temperature should be
140 degree and above
165 or higher
What are the three parts of a kernel and what do you find in each?
Bran (outside), endosperm (majority of the kernel), germ (inside
What is the best way to store most grains?
Airtight, cool, dry place
List the basic steps for preparing rice
Pot size, Boiling water, Reduce heat, Lid use
What is the difference between short grain, long grain and brown rice?
Brown-bran, germ and endosperm; short-sticky rice; long grain-preferred in the US
How is baking soda different from baking powder?
Baking Soda: needs acid and liquid (cookies); Baking Powder: double acting, needs liquid and heat (quick breads)
What does it mean when rice and flour are enriched?
Nutrients lost in milling are added back to the grains, such as iron, vitamin B, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, folate, calcium and vitamin D
What makes pasta such a popular choice for meal planning?
Quick, easy carbs
Why is bread dough kneaded?
Name the main ingredients in yeast breads and their function
flour (gluten), yeast (leavening), salt (taste and acid to activate yeast), sugar (activate yeast)
Name 3 types of flour, listing from lowest protein to highest
Gluten, bread, all-purpose, self-rising, cake, pastry
How is all-purpose flour different from self-rising flour?
Self-rising has salt, baking soda, and acid salt; lower protein level
Are fresh and dry herbs interchangeable?
Need less dried herbs than fresh or 3x more fresh than dry
What is the difference between quick breads and yeast breads?
Quick breads use baking soda, baking powder, air or steam for leavening vs yeast
Is the fat in muffins usually liquid or solid?
Is the fat in biscuits usually liquid or solid?
How can altitude affect food preparation?
Bc there is less atmospheric pressure at higher altitudes, boiling points are lower (1 degree for every 500ft above sea level); leavening happens faster than structure is formed; need to be baked at higher temp, less sugar, more liquid, less fat, egg whites beaten less
Why is it important to follow recipes for cakes and cookies?
Correct measurements, mixing in order is essential for proper final product
Know about pie crust and gluten development
Some gluten is necessary but to be flaky, it needs to be mixed and kneaded minimally and gently
How might baking cupcakes in a dark metal pan have a different effect than baking them in a shiny metal pan?
A dark cookie sheet will absorb heat and burn the bottom of your cookies. A shiny sheet reflects the heat which will result in more even baking.
What makes fudge grainy?
Lack of interfering agents (such as fat), inadequate beating, crystals do not form rapidly to create structure
What makes caramels too sticky?
Hydrogen bonds, hygroscopic
What is an interfering agent in candies?
Butter, corn syrup or other ingredient inhibiting crystal formation
Give an example of crystalline candy. Non-crystalline
Fudge vs caramel
How can humidity affect candy making?
If candy is cooling in a humid area, moisture will be removed from the air and held in the candy, possibly making the candy too soft
Give 2 functions of sugar in food
Browning, caramelization, softens acidity, inhibit mold growth, yeast activation, incorporate air, stabilize egg foams
How can meal service types differ?
American-all the food is placed in serving dishes on the table and passed around; family-service of a meal by the host, who serves all the food onto plates stacked in front of him and then passes the served plates to the hostess and others at the table; blue plate- dinner plates are served from the kitchen; english- meal service in which a waiter carries the dinner plate (served by the host) to the diner
What should you consider when selecting a centerpiece for your meal?
Buffet vs dining table (size), floral or edible or acessories
On what side of the plate do you place spoons? Forks? Knives?
Forks on left, on the right is knife then spoon (or at the top of the plate
Name 4 things to consider when planning a meal.
Nutrition, sensory, time, costs, leftovers
• What fields are required on www.choosemyplate.gov to get an individualized plan?
based on your age, sex, height, weight, and physical activity level
Name groups in choosemyplate and the main nutrients you get from each.
Fruits and Vegetables (1/2 plate)- carbs, vitamins and minerals
Protein (little less than 1/4)- protein, iron, vitamins and minerals, amino acids
Grains (little more than 1/4) - carbs, fiber, some protein
Dairy (glass)- calcium, fat, protein
• What is unit price?
the price of an ounce or other sensible unit of measure of various products
What is an advantage to grocery shopping at a big box store?
•Bulk shopping power, varied products, (school supplies, clothes, food), convenient locations, shop online
What is a disadvantage to grocery shopping at a big box store?
• Time consuming to shop in store. Fewer selection of meat, produce, limited customer services
What is an advantage to grocery shopping at a grocery store
• Quick in and out, store brands, rewards cards, weekly ads, customer service (help to car)
What is a disadvantage to grocery shopping at a grocery store?
•Higher prices sometimes
What is an advantage to grocery shopping at a warehouse club?
•Customer buys bulk, range of services (tires, large appliances, furniture, food, etc.), shop online
What is a disadvantage to grocery shopping at a warehouse club
• Membership required, limited store brands, big quantities, often canʼt pay with credit card
Give 3 tips for wise grocery shopping.
• Store brands, Foods in different forms, Different stores
• What is a loss leader?
an item that the stores sell at or below the cost to lure you into the store, hoping that you'll purchase more items
• Name 3 things you find on food labels.
Nutritional facts, serving size, calories, percent daily values, ingredients, manufacturer
• What things would you take into consideration when evaluating a meal?
Color, shape, texture, flavor, temperature, satiety value, variety
• What can happen if you don't plan a time schedule for cooking?
Need to fit the time constraints of the person preparing the food--keep food in optimal serving conditions
• What is the danger zone?
(40 - 140 degrees Fahrenheit)
• When might you buy packaged foods instead of preparing the food?
Busy, after/before work, on the go
• How many teaspoons in a tablespoon?
• How do you half an egg?
2 Tablespoons beaten egg. Since the yolk and white have different properties, it is best to use both parts, even if you only need half the volume of an egg. Beat both together, then measure 1 Tbsp
• How many cups in a gallon?
• What is an ingredient that is measured by scooping and leveling?
Dry ingredients except flour
• Name an ingredient that is measured by spooning and leveling.
• Name one use for a turner.
Used to lift and turn flat foods such as hamburgers and pancakes
• Name one use for a silicone spatula.
has a rubber end and is used to scrape food out from bowls, measuring cups, etc.
• Name a use for a whisk.
used for blending, mixing, stirring beating and whipping milk and eggs.
• Name an item you might cut with a paring knife
. To peel or cut small food items.
• Name an item you might cut with a chef's knife.
has a wide triangular blade used for chopping or dicing
• What tool do you use to measure honey?
Liquid measuring cup
• Know the best order in which to hand-wash dishes.
All dishes need to be scrubbed thoroughly, washed in soap or detergent and hot water, and rinsed thoroughly in very hot water.
• What is a common cause of salmonella?
found commonly in protein foods such as pork, poultry, and eggs
• What is a common cause of e.Coli?
linked to eating undercooked meat, raw milk, unpasteurized juices, and contaminated leafy greens
• What is a common cause of botulism?
The problem is found most commonly in canned, low-acid foods such as vegetables and meats, poultry, or fish
• Why can sponges be a breeding ground for bacteria?
• How do microwave ovens work?
Microwaves are attracted to fat, sugar, and water molecules. Microwaves cause these molecules to vibrate. This creates friction, which produces the heat needed to cook the food.
• What is standing time in microwave cooking?
Standing time is the time that food continues cooking after the microwave has stopped.
• Name 2 microwave safe materials.
glass, plastic, and paper
• Name 2 materials that shouldn't go in a microwave.
Do not use metal cookware or wires or metallic-edged dishes
• How does convection heat work?
circulation of heated liquids or air
• How does radiation heat work?
direct transfer of energy from the energy source to the food
• How does conduction heat work?
heat is transferred directly from one molecule to another
• In what vegetable category does cauliflower belong?
Leaves/stems like broccoli and cabbage
• In what fruit category does pineapple belong?
• You're making a fruit platter that includes sliced apples. How can you prevent the apples from browning?
• Why is it important to cook vegetables in little water and/or for short time periods?
Conserve nutrients, color, texture
• Give a couple of guidelines for selecting fresh fruits and vegetables.
crispness, color, and freedom from blemishes; fresh and plump, free of bruises and blemishes, and at the desired degree of ripeness
• Are all apples suited for all uses?
No, some better fresh/baked/filling/juice/vinegar/jelly/dried
• What equipment do you need to can meat?
• Why can't you use any oil for frying?
Fats with water or milk will have a high smoking point
• What is a good fat for biscuits?
Solid fats-butter, margarine, shortening, lard
• What is hydrogenation?
Process of adding hydrogen to polyunsaturated fatty acids to change oils into solid fats.
• Can you use any type of margarine for baking? Why or why not?
No, soft and diet margarines will not have the same effect
• Name 3 things that will make cream beat best
Well chilled, stop before breaking, sugar
• List the main ingredients in a white sauce
Flour, fat, milk
• What is a roux?
Equal parts fat and flour-stirring starch into the measured drippings from fried or roasted meats.
• What is butter made of?
Milk is churned until the original oil-in-water emulsion in milk breaks and butter, a water- in-oil emulsion, forms.
• What is pasteurization? What is homogenization?
Heat treatment to kill disease-producing microorganisms in milk; usually heated to 161°F (71.6°C) and held there for 15 seconds before cooling to less than 50°F (10°C); heated milk is forced through tiny apertures at a pressure between 500 and 2500 pounds per square inch. This force causes the fat globules to be broken up into droplets so small that they remain suspended and distributed uniformly throughout the milk
• Give a guideline for cooking with dairy products.
Control of the acidity of protein-containing mixtures can help to keep the protein away from the isoelectric point, thus reducing the likelihood of detrimental changes in the protein.
• Name three things in the meat group that aren't meat
Eggs, legumes, dairy, seeds, ancient grains, soy
• Which form of vegetarianism is the most restrictive?
• What is a complete protein? Give an example.
Contain adequate proportions of all essential amino acids the body needs; Examples: fish, meat, poultry, eggs, milk, cheese, yogurt
• What is an incomplete protein? Give an example.
Lacks one or more of the essential amino acids OR doesn't have correct proportions of essential amino acids; Examples: nuts, seeds, grains, beans
• Name an appropriate method for preparing a less tender cut of meat.
Moist heat-braising, stewing, steaming, poaching
• What affects tenderness of meat?
Fat content, use of muscle
• What are some tips for successfully roasting a turkey?
Hold inverted in a V shaped rack in a shallow pan, roast without a cover to a correct final temp
• Name 3 things that will make egg whites beat into a foam
Stand mixer/handheld mixer, no fat, room temp
• How does sugar affect egg white foams?
Slower to reach soft peak stage, can reverse a dry stage foam--softens the foam and facilitates folding in ingredients
• Where is the fat in an egg?
• What happens to eggs as they age?
Larger air sac, egg dries up, thick white decreases, more yolk mobility--flattened yolk, spread white
• What is candling?
During grading process-Holding a light into egg to see the size of the air cell, the position and mobility of the yolk, and the possible presence of such foreign substances as rots, molds, and blood spots
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