Exam 4 BI208
Terms in this set (42)
Alimentary canal organ found in the thorax.
Alimentary canal organ found in the abdominal region
This digestive system activity moves nutrients from outside the body to the inside of the body.
Connective tissue portion of the alimentary mucosal tissue
Outermost layer of intraperitoneal organs
This tissue is immediately deep to the mucosal tissue
The term 'gut brain' refers to this structure
Enteric nervous system
Autonomic motor system that promotes digestion
Parasympathetic nervous system
Autonomic system that is activated by epinephrine.
Sympathetic nervous system
Esophageal epithelia superior to the cardiac sphincter
Stratified squamous epithelium
Stomach epithelia inferior to the cardiac sphincter
Simple columnar epithelium
An effector tissues within the alimentary canal
Gastric pit cells that produce pepsinogen
Gastric pit cells that produce gastrin
Gastric pit cells that produce hydrochloric acid
Stimulates gastric gland secretion
Caused by erosion of stomach mucosa
Inactive digestive enzyme
Promotes movement of chime through the alimentary canal
The chemical breakdown of macromolecules
Elimination of indigestible substance from the alimentary canal.
The double layer of membrane that attaches the digestive organs to the body wall
The serous membrane in that covers most digestive organs
Inflammation of the peritoneum
Digestive reflexes that occur entirely within the gastrointestinal wall
Digestive reflexes involving the central nervous system
Myenteric nerve plexus innervates this layer of the alimentary canal
The peritoneal cavity
Like the pleural and pericardial cavities is a space containing serous fluid.
Carbohydrates are acted upon by
The digestive juice product containing enzymes capable of digesting all four major foodstuff categories
The sphincter between the stomach and the duodenum is
The pyloric sphincter
The site of production of chymotrypsinogen is
The gall bladder
Stores and concentrates bile
The parasympathetic nervous system influences digestion by
Stimulating peristalsis and secretory activity
Bile salts aid in the emulsification of
Two substances secreted by cells of the gastric glands are needed to produce active protein digesting enzymes. One is hydrochloric acid and the other is
The only stomach function essential for life is
Secretion of intrinsic factor
Ninety percent of gastric ulcers are caused by which of the following:
The bacteria Helicobacter pylori
The bicarbonate buffer system functions in the human body to prevent large changes in the pH of body fluids. The chemical formula for this buffer system is represented below:
CO2 + H20 « H2CO3 « H+ + HCO3 -
This buffer system also plays a central role in digestion. Using the formula shown above and the figure shown below, explain how the carbon dioxide produced by the body is used by the cells in the gastric pits in the process of digestion. Be sure to include the following molecules in your answer (you may also draw them on the figure): H+, Cl- , HCO3 - , H2CO3, CO2, H2O
1) Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a cellular waste product from metabolism and is present within the fluids in and surrounding the cells.
2) Within the parietal cells CO2 and H20 are converted by carbonic anhydrase to carbonic acid (H2CO3)
3) Carbonic acid spontaneously dissociates into bicarbonate (HCO3- ) and acid (H+)
4) Bicarbonate is transported out of the parietal cell into the blood producing the 'alkaline tide'
5) At the same time, chloride ion is transported into the parietal cell
6) Both the acid and the chloride move down their concentration gradient to the lume of the pit to form hydrochloric acid
The regulation of gastric secretion occurs in three phases. On the left side of the vertical line, list these three phases of gastric secretion. On the right side of the line, list one event that stimulates and one event that inhibits each phase
Stim: Sight, thought, smell
Inh: Neural controls
Stim: stomach stretch, food
Inh: Excess acidity, stress
Stim: Duodenal stretch
Inh: Enterogastric reflex
The sweet life case study
This patient is suffering from type I diabetes which is characterized by the lack of insulin production by the pancreas and an excessive amount of glucose in her blood.
The lack of insulin prevents her cells from taking up the glucose causing the glucose levels to be elevated in her blood
What one additional test would you conduct in order to confirm your answer?
In order to distinguish between type I and type II diabetes, I would test for her blood insulin levels. If she lacks insulin, she has type I diabetes.
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