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Kindergarden thru 3rd grade:

1.should use a simplified 12 inch globe.
Holistic Scoring
2.No more than 3 colors for land elevation
3.No more than 2 colors to represent water depth
4. Should only include Largest rivers, cities, oceans

Grades 4-6:

1. use the 16 inch Globe
2. 7 colors for land elevation
3. 3 colors represent water depth

Maps and Globes

Main purpose: familiarize children with the basic
roundness of the earth and to gegin developing
a global perspective

map concepts in 5th and 6th grade

1. create and interpret maps
2. use maps and globes to pose and answer questions
3. locate major historical and contemporay societies
4. solve real life problems ( Road maps)
4. Should only include Largest rivers, cities, oceans

Thematic Untis

help teachers to integrate the content areas.
teachers select a theme and organize content area instruction around it.

Thematic Units

Ideal for ELLs b/c the use of a common theme in
multiple content areas make content more accessible

Pictorial Graph --

most concrete type of graph b/c it uses a Picture of the objects being represented

Bar Graph

more concrete than Pie graph b/c pie deals with % not required

Pie Graph -

Represents research Information


ideal for promoting concept formation in a concrete fashion


is constructed to allow the easy comparison of two or more sets of data

Narrative Charts -

shows events in a sequence

Organizational Chart -

structure of a organization

Flow Chart -

involving changes a certain points


words that are similar in two languages

Greek and Roman Civilization

English and most western languages have been
heavily influenced by the

Semantic Webb or Tree Diagram

Shows the relationship b/t Main idea and
Subordinated components

Time line

summary of Chronological events and is ideal for
storing historic events or events in a sequence

Flow Chart

Shows cause and effect relationships and can be used to show steps in a process

Venn Diagram

uses circles to compare common and unique elements of two or more components

Sheltered English

instructional approach designed to make content
comprehensible for ELLs

Sheltered English

Respond better to short simple sentences
introduce Technical voc before the lesson
Use repetition, restatment and paraphrasing to clarify
use oral presentation diagrams, graph organizers ect..

Role play

emphasize the gist of the content instead of details most effective in classroom with students from many language groups who are at least at the intermediate Use graphic organizers to simplify chunks of content

Academic Vocabulary in Social Studies

is the vocabulary of teaching and learning
is the vocabulary needed to understand the concept of school

Steps to teaching Academic Vocabulary

Provide description, explanation or example of term student restate the description, exampl in own words student creates by drawing a picture, symbol, or graph of the word. students participates in activities that help add knowled
of terms participates in games and activities that reinforce term







New England Colonies

farming and small industries, fishing, lumber, crafts

New England Colonies

what cities were part of the New England Colonies
Connecticut -Royal charter
New Hampshire

Middle colonies




southwestern united states and northern mexico
developed :

Anasazi and the Hohokam

Industrial Revolution and modern technology

Mining of Fossil fuel provied the energy needed to
expand and promte industrial developmnet
Imporvement of steam engine and industrial machines
let to the mass production of goods and a better
distribution system
economic grouth motivated people to leave the Rural
areas and move to the cities


developed adobe architetecture consisting of
individual apartments, storage areas and plaza


built the cliff dwellings at Mesa Verde, Colorado for protection
Worked the land extensively developed irrigation system * made cloth and baskets


Built separate stoneand timber houses around a plaza developed :

Anasazi or the Hohokam

Neither developed a writen language

Pueblo Indians

improved the architectureal tradition and farming techn produce drought resistant corn and squash foundation for their diet suggest that the Anasazi settled along the Rio Grande and Intermarreied the local population, leading to the Emergence of the


Ontario canada
Hunted and fished
Farming became MAIN economic activity
women did most of farming
Iroquois Confederation - Discouraged war among
the group and to provide for a common defense

Virginia house of Burgesses

first colonial assembly of elected representatives
from the Virginia settlement
established in JAMESTOWN to represent the colonist
in the state of Virginia in the lawmaking process

Mayflower Compact

Drawn and signed by the Pilgrims aboard the Mayflower Pledged to consult one another to make decisions and to act by the Will of the Majority

Mayflower Compact

One of the earliest agreements to establish a political body and to give that body the power to act for the good of the colony

Enlightment - age of reason

refers to a period during the 17th and 18th centuriesbegan questioning religious dogmas and emphasizing scientific reasoning and knowledge

American Revolution

Moticated the Spanish colonies to seek Independence from the Virginia settlement

Mercantile System

TO exploit the colonies


1.Wealth of the nation is measured in terms of:
Commodities accured especially Gold and Silver
2.Economic activities can Increase the power and
control of the National government
3.Colonies existed for the benefit of the MOTHER

Indentured servents

system was used to bring workers to New World. They would seel Themselves to an agent or ship captain before leaving England. In return, would be sold to a byter in the colines to recover the cost of passage

Indentured servent

were given a piece of land for thier services. Not applied to African Americans, permanent slavery was institued

American War for Independence

Main reason - Economic in nature

American War for Independence

Another reason for the war was the cost of the French and Indian war. Seven years war, emptied the British offers and the British Crown needed a quick way to recover Financially.

American War for Independence

The taxation system that follwed the French and Indian war was unbearable for the colonies.
They Boycotted the government of KING GEORGE
They responded by sending british troops to
Boston. BOSTON MASSACRE - Boston Tea Party

American War of Independe

Boston Tea Party Colonist dumped tea in the harbor to protest against taxation.
All these events let to the


elected commander of the American Forces against the British. War was declared against the British

Thonas Jefferson

Prepared Declaration of Independence July 4th 1776 Pronounced the colonies FREE and INDEPENDENT States

Declaration of Independence Consisted of

Preamble or Constitution
1. Stress natural unalinable rights and liberitesto all people from birth
2. Consist of a list of specific grievances and injustices committed by Britian
3. Announces the colonies as the UNITED STATES of America Provided - EQUAL RIGHTS FOR ALL PEOPLE


Began in Massachusetts of towns:
Concord and Lexington
Paul Revere - warned colonist British are coming
Minutemen took up arms

Bunker Hill and long island British Defeated the Colonist
French joined the war with Americans, in the Seven
year war, defeated Britian at Yorktown, Virginia 1781

Treaty of Paris

Signed in 1783

Ended the ear and gave Independence to the new

Treaty of Paris

Ended the seven year war of the American

Monroe Doctrine

made clear to European countries
that US was not going to permit the establishment
of coloines in the Western Hemishere
also banned European countries from attacking
the New American Republic that were just becoming
established in 19th centuries, NOR was the US to
become involved in European Affairs

America for Americans

Known as Monroe Doctrine

Eli Whitneys Cotton Gin

Became economic mainstay in South, demand for labor increased the slave trade
North Prohibited slavery

Issue of slavery resulted in the

Amercian Civil War

Abraham Lincoln-

-Issued the Emancipation Proclamation
Granting Freedom to slaves in the South

Emancipation Proclamat

Granting Freedom to slaves in the South

Emancipation Proclamation Passed in

1804 New York and New Jersey had passed the gradual emancipation laws, meanwhile, slave trade int eh south grew to met the economic needs

13th amendment -

Abolished Salvery

14th amendment -

Gave African Americans Full

15th amendment -

Granted voting rights to Black Men


Slavery divided the nation

1800's slavery abolished in the North

north became more urban and industrialized than the south

Norhtern states

received lots of immigrants who provided labor.

Southern states

was rural few immigrants and needed slaves as labor

John Breckinridge

Proslavery candidate

Abraham Lincoln

Antislavery candidate

Election of Lincoln resulted in the

secession of the southern states from the union, the creation of the Confederacy and the start of the American Civil War

Jefferson Davis as President

Confederate States of the southern states

Battle of Gettyburg

Most disastrous event of the war in history of US
50K died from North and South

Battle of Gettyburg

Pres Lincolon Delieverd the Eulogy for the fallen Soilders

Robert E Lee -

Confederate Commander


Battle of Gettyburg

50,000 soilders from north and south died

Ulysses Grant

Commander of
the Union Forces

Robert E Lee

Surrendered to Ulysses Grant

Reconstruction ERA 1865-1867

was characterized by hatred and violence


assassinated in 1865, shortly after the war

CIVIL WAR Started in


1800's slavery abolished in the North Because:

north became more urban and industrialized than the south
Norhtern states received lots of immigrants who
provided labor. Southern states was rural
few immigrants and needed slaves as labo

Andrew Johnson

in charge of reconstruction era, a Southern disliked by North as well
as the South, was also IMPREACHED


passed by southern legislatures to control former
Restricted free assembly, while others restricted
types of jobs




declared that all persons born in the US were citizenship, that all citizens were entilted to equal rights and their rights wer protected by due process




Enforced strict separation in the South
Also kept from voting by POLL TAXES and
blacks in the north were not able to find jobs

Black codes

The major obstacle to the reunification of the nation resulted from the


established during the Reconstruction to continue the implementation of the Black codes and to terroize Blacks

Civil Rights

Are legal and plictical righs of the people who live in a particular country.

Contitution and the Bill of Rights

In the US, the Guarantee Civil rights to American Citizens and residents

Bill of rights

First 10 Amendments are called

Reconstruction Era

amendments 13,14,15 were passed due to the

Civil Rights movement

A movement that sought equality for Blacks. Even after the 13,14,15 were added , blacks were denied fulll civil rights.


paved the way to economic Recovery

The Reconstruction that followed the war also
played a VITAL ROLE in the development
of the US as

a Solid Economic and Industrial Nation

Due Process

is the principle that the government must respect all the legal rights that are owed to a person

Plessy vs Ferguson

Legalized segregation, allowing separate but
equal facilities for black and white students

President Truman
President Truman

Ordered the integration of the ARMED FORCES
and introduced Civil Rights Legislation in Congress


Challenged the laws of segregaton with the
Brown V Board of Education Of Topeka

IN 1954

Supreme court ruled that racial segregation

Rosa parks

Montgomery bus Company boycott
Well known activist and respecte citizen of
Montgomery Alabana
Refused to give up her seat on a bus

Rosa Parks

Her action prompted the NAACP to form
Led by Dr. Martin Luther King

Dr Martin Luther King

I have a dream support of the Civil Rights Act 1964
He was assasinated in 1968 - Memphis Tenn

Civil Rights ACT of 1964

Resulted in Prohibited segregation in all Public Facilities and discrimination in education and employment

President John F Kennedy

Proposed new Civil rights laws and also to help
millions in poverty

President John F Kennedy

Assinatied in Dallas 1963

President Lyndon B Johnson

- Urged Congress to pass the laws in honor of Kennedy

19th amendment

Women the right to Vote 19th guaranteed women the right to vote 1920

Equal Bill of Rights Amendment of 1972

Gurantees women equal rights

Mexican American Civil Rights Movement

Reies Tijerina - Initiated the Movement in New Mexico
1960 struggle for human rights
initiated a movement called the CHICANO Movement
Movement was cultural as well as Political
4 main goals:
Restoration of land grants, farm workers rights,
education and political rights

Reies Tijerina

initiated a movement called the CHICANO Movement

CHICANO Movement 4 main goals

Restoration of land grants, farm workers rights,
education and political rights

Spanish American War of 1898

War between Spain and US made the US a World Power

Guadalupe Kidlgo Treaty

Sought to recover the land taken from the
Mexican Americans as a result of the

Rodolfo Gonzales -

Founded the Crusade for
Justice as a platform for the movement

Cesar Chavez and Dolores Huertas

1.Support the rights of Farm workers
2.human right leaders
3.fought for better working conditions
4.fought for fair compensation for agricultural workers
5.Fought for education and political rights of Mex. Amer
6.Paved the way for better schools and programs
for Mex Amer and minority in general

Equal pay Act 1963 and Civil Rights Act 1964

Attain better employment and professional opportunities prohibited discrimination based on gender

Civil Rights Act 1964

prohibited discrimination based on gender

Betty Friedan

Author of the Feminine Nystique
National Organization for Women (NOW)

Equal Rights amendment fo 1972

Guarantees women equal rights

Temperance Movement

organized effort to encourage moderation in the
consumptoin of intoxicating liquors or press for complete abstinence

18th amendment

Sought to Prohibit Alcohol consumption
marked the adoption of the
Prohibition was never really enforced

Spanish American war 1898

War between Spain and US
Made US a World Power

Spanish American war 1898

US Gained control of the Phillippines, Guam, and
Puerto Rico - Now US territories

World War I

First Global war began in EUROPE
Involved two alliances - Alles and Central powers

Central Powers - Neutral - Americans, benefited from trading with

World War I

Involved two alliances - Alles and Central powers

Allies -

England, France, Russia, and Italy

Central Powers -

Germany, Austria-Hungary, Turkey
and Bugaria

Neutral -

Americans, benefited from trading with

World war I

Germans developed a new Weapon, submarine, and used it to destroy Allied ships
Germans sank a British Liner - Lusitanica, killed 128 americans, and american cargo ships were sunk

President Wilson -

declared war on Germany and
Central powers

Treaty fo Versailles

Ended the World War I

Treaty fo Versailles

Central Powers were severly punished and forced to pay for the War.

Treaty fo Versailles

This created resentment by the Germans
creating World War II

Bolshevik Revolution In Russia

Led by Bladimir Lenin

Led by Bladimir Lenin

Took over the Government in Russia


British Liner, killing more than 1100 passengers, including Americans

President Wilson

asked congress to declare war against germany and the central powers because of the Lusitania being sunk

Treaty of Versailles

Result of this Treaty let to WORLD WAR II because of the resentment by the Germans being forced to pay for the War they caused

Franklin D Roosevelt

New Deal 1933-1937 designed to revitalize the economy and alleciate poverty and depair caused by the depression

Franklin D Roosevelt

Response to the Great Depression
created the 3 R's
relief, recovery, and reform.
Relief for unemployment, recovery of the economy
to normal levels, and reform of the financial system
to prevent a repeat

Great Depression

After WWI, 1929 Stock Market Crashed. Millions lost jobs10year period

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