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Biology I Exam
Terms in this set (59)
A solution at pH 4 is more acidic than neutral pH.
CO2 is a polar molecule due to differences in electronegativities between carbon and oxygen.
Transcription of mRNA occurs in the 5' to 3' direction.
An uncharged tRNA enters the P site of the ribosomal small subunit during translation.
False, it enters the A site
The introns of mRNA are the parts that get translated into protein
A release factor binds at the start codon of mRNA
Acidic solutions have an abundance of protons compared to hydroxide ions
Which of the following is not a model organism in the study of Biology?
The complementary RNA sequence for the following sequence 5' ACGTCGTAGA 3' is:
5' UCUACGACGU 3'
Water molecules surrounding a charged atom form a:
mRNA processing includes all of the following except:
start codon; it includes poly-A tail, 5'capping, and splicing
A protein that contains 6 amino acids has lost ________ H20 molecules.
The ribosome completes ________ reactions to form _______ bonds when making proteins.
Neutron mass, charge, etc.
neutral, 1 dalton, located in the nucleus
Proton mass, charge, etc.
positive, 1 dalton, located in the nucleus
Electron mass, charge, etc.
negative, negligible, located outside of the nucleus in shells
Scientists have recently discovered rain clouds on a planet 110 light years away. They suggest that this could be a hint that life might have evolved on another planet. How is the presence of water relevant for the evolution of life? Name the emergent property of water and state the mechanism that leads to this property?
Living things need water in order to live and evolve. Cohesion is an emergent property that is caused by similar substances sticking to each other like water molecules in the clouds. The mechanism is hydrogen bonding.
The drug that inhibits the function of a tRNA synthetase. What effect will this have on a cell.?
The cell will not be able to properly translate the code or it may slow the process down
Dynein is required for cell motility using cilia and flagella
true- microtubules are made of dynein and kinesin
Channel proteins require energy to move molecules across the membrane.
Light at 660 nm has more energy than light at 350 nm wavelength
In eukaryotes, mRNA exports from the nucleus through the nuclear pores in the nuclear envelope/
Calcium ions are pumped into the ER lumen so that it can be released as a second messenger during cell signaling.
Cytochrome proteins only exists in chloroplasts/
If a cell is placed in a hypotonic environment, water will rush out of the cell, causing cell shriveling.
In photosynthesis, electrons gain energy from light and move in the following order: Photosystem I (p700), Electron transport chain, photosystem II (p680), NADH
The pH of the thylakoid luminal space is lower than the stroma.
All of the following are cell junctions found in animal cells except:
The centrosome contains two centrioles, which are made of ________ cytoskeletal components.
Eukaryotic nuclear DNA is ________, which is wrapped around ________ proteins.
In diffusion, ________ molecules move from areas of ________ solute concentration to __________ concentration. In osmosis, _________ molecules move from areas of ________ solute concentration to ________ concentration.
solute: high to low; water: low to high
Where does the Calvin cycle take place?
Where does glycolysis occur?
Where does oxidative phosphorylation occur?
inner mitochondrial membrane
Where do light reactions occur?
Where does the citric acid cycle occur?
Where does pyruvate oxidation occur?
Antibiotics inhibit bacterial growth by binding to the prokaryotic ribosome. However, antibiotics don't hurt fungal cells, which are eukaryotic. Why not?
Prokaryotic ribosomes (30s, 50s: 70s) are much smaller than eukaryotic ribosomes (40s, 60s; 80s) and don't fit properly to eukaryotic ribosomes. The antibiotic is small enough to fit with the subunit of the prokaryotic ribosome but not the eukaryotic ribosome because the antibiotic is too small too fit with the large eukaryotic ribosome.
Name the function of cholesterol and what kind of macromolecule it is.
it is a lipid; it regulates fluidity
List the steps of making a glycosylated extracellular matrix protein from gene to its final location. Be sure to be as detailed as possible.
transcribed in nucleus, processed ( capping, splicing, poly-A) , then exported through the nuclear pores to rough ER where it is translated, co-translocation happens, the signal peptide is read, then glycosylation happens by attracting carb. to protein, vesicle carries it to the trans face of the Golgi to modify the glycoprotein sugar, the vesicle then takes it to the plasma membrane where it os exocytosed
Why is O2 required during cellular respiration, and why is CO2 required during photosynthesis?
CO2 is needed to build G3P and O2 is needed to find e- acceptor
State how the endosymbiotic theory explains how animal and plant cells evolved their DNA-containing organelles
It states that eukaryotic cells evolved from bacterial cells engulfing archaea cells. This is possibly how the mitochondria came to do be.
Calvin cycle input and output
input: CO2 , ATP, and NADPH/ output: G3P, 3C..... no phosphorylation
Glycolysis input and output
input: 6C/ output: ATP, NADH, 3C.... substrate level phosphorylation
oxidative phosphorylation input and output
input: NADH and O2/ output: ATP...... Oxidative phosphorylation
Light reactions input and output
input: light/ output: O2, NADPH, ATP..... photophosphorylation
Citric acid input and output
input: acetyl CoA/ output: CO2, NADH, ATP.... substrate-level phosphorylation
Pyruvate oxidation input and output
input: 3C/ output: NADH, CO2, and acetyl CoA
Hemophilia is an X-linked recessive disease. Two parents have a daughter without hemophilia and a son with hemophilia. One of the parents must have hemophilia.
False, the mother is a carrier
Bacteria require telomerase to solve the end replication problem.
false, it's circular
I have crossed a heterozygous plant that has purple flowers and produces yellow seeds with a plant that has white flowers and produces green seeds. The resulting offspring were 1 plant with white flowers and yellow seeds, 24 plants with purple flowers and yellow seeds, and 25 plants with white flowers and green seeds. The Purple and Yellow genes independently assort (are not linked).
Medel's Law of Segregation describes how the two alleles of a diploid organism operate to form haploid gametes.
true, alleles from mom separate into different gametes
Meiosis I results in two haploid cells from a single diploid cell.
All organisms need to undergo meiosis for sexual reproduction
DNA polymerase polymerizes monophosphate nucleotides during replication.
The scientists who provided the data necessary to determine the antiparallel double helix structure of DNA was ______
DNA polymerase can't begin making a daughter DNA strand by itself. Instead it requires a ________, made by ________ to polymerize from.
RNA primer, primase
Phosphate is found in...
Sulfur is found in...
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