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MIS Chapters 11 & 12
Terms in this set (91)
Artificial Intelligence (AI)
The effort to develop computer-based systems that can behave like humans, with the ability to learn languages, accomplish physical tasks, use a perceptual apparatus, and emulate human expertise and decision making.
Technology for enhancing visualization that provides a live view of a physical world environment whose elements are augmented by virtual computer-generated imagery
Balanced Scorecard Method
Framework for operationalizing a firms strategic plan by focusing on measurable financial, business process, customer, and learning and growth outcomes of firm performance.
Business performance Management (BPM)
methodology for measuring firm performance by using key performance indicators based on the firm's strategies
Case-Based reasoning (CBR)
Artificial intelligence technology that represents knowledge as a database of cases and solutions.
Simon's third stage of decision making, when the individual selects among the various solution alternatives
Technology for helping users see patterns and relationships in large amounts of data by presenting the data in graphical form.
Simon's second stage of decision making, when the individual conceives of possible alternative solutions to a problem
Digital Asset management systems
Classify, store, and distribute digital objects such as photographs, graphic images, video, and audio content.
The ability to move from summary data to increasingly granular levels of detail.
Enterprise Content Management Systems
Systems that help organizations manage structured and semistructured knowledge, providing corporate repositories of documents, reports, presentations, and best practices and capabilities for collecting and organizing email and graphic objects.
Enterprise-wide knowledge management systems
General-purpose, firm-wide systems that collect, store, distribute, and apply digital content and knowledge
Knowledge-intensive computer program that captures the expertise of a human in limited domains of knowledge.
Rule-based AI that tolerates imprecision by using nonspecific terms called membership functions to solve problems.
Problem-solving methods that promote the evolution of solutions to specified problems using the model of living organisms adapting to their environment.
Geographic information systems
Systems with software that can analyze and display data using digitized maps to enhance planning and decision-making
Group decision-support systems (GDSS)
An interactive computer-based system to facilitate the solution to unstructured problems by a set of decision makers working together as a group.
All the organizational activities surrounding the adoption, management, and regular reuse of an innovation, such as a new information systems
The strategy used to search through the rule base in an expert system; can be forward or backward chaining.
The first of Simon's four stages of decision making, when the individual collects information to identify problems occurring in the organization
Software programs that use a built-in or learned knowledge base to carry out specific, repetitive, and predictable tasks for an individual user, business process, or software application.
Technologies that aid decision makers by capturing individual and collective knowledge, discovering patterns and behaviors in very large quantities of data, and generating solutions to problems that are too large and complex for human beings to solve on their own.
Powerful desktop computers for financial specialists, which are optimized to access and manipulate massive amounts of financial data.
Key performance indicators (KPIs)
Measures proposed by senior management for understanding how well the firm is performing along specified dimensions.
Model of human knowledge that expert systems use
Systems that support the creation, capture, storage, and dissemination of firm expertise and knowledge
Knowledge work systems (KWS)
Information systems that aid knowledge workers in the creation and integration of new knowledge in the organization
Learning management system (LMS)
Tools for the management, delivery, tracking, and assessment of various types of employee learning
Ability to gain insight from the location (geographic) component of data, including location data from mobile phones, output from sensors or scanning devices, and data from maps.
Massive Open online course (MOOC)
Online course made available on the web to very large numbers of participants.
Hardware or software that attempts to emulate the processing patterns of the biological brain
business analytics that delivers insight into data, streaming events and business operations
spreadsheet tool for reorganizing and summarizing two or more dimensions of data in a tabular format
the use of data mining techniques, historical data, and assumptions about future conditions to predict outcomes of events
Decisions in which only part of the problem has a clear-cut answer provided by an accepted procedure
models that ask "what if" questions repeatedly to determine the impact of changes in one or more factors on the outcomes
Decisions that are repetitive, routine, and have a definite procedure for handling them
Knowledge in the form of structured documents and reports
Expertise and experience of organizational members that has not been formally documented.
Nonroutine decisions in which the decision maker must provide judgment, evaluation, and insights in the problem definition; there is no agreed-upon procedure for making such decisions
Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML)
A set of specifications for interactive three-dimensional modeling on the World Wide Web.
Virtual Reality Systems
Interactive graphics software and hardware that create computer-generated simulations that provide sensations that emulate real-world activities.
provides the final certification that the system is ready to be used in a production setting
building large software systems by combining pre-existing software components
Computer-aided software engineering (CASE)
automation of step-by-step methodologies for software and systems development to reduce the amounts of repetitive work the developer needs to do
The modification of a software package to meet an organization's unique requirements without destroying the package software's integrity
Data flow diagram (DFD)
Primary tool for structured analysis that graphically illustrates a system's component process and the flow of data between them
Direct cutover strategy
descriptions of how an information system works from either a technical or end-user standpoint
the development of information systems by end users with little or no formal assistance from technical specialists
The interaction of people and machines in the work environment, including the design of jobs, health issues, and the end-user interface of information systems.
As part of the systems analysis process, the way to determine whether the solution is achievable, given the organization's resources and constraints.
Formal Planning and control tools
tools to improve project management by listing the specific activities that make up a project, their duration, and the sequence and timing of tasks
Chart that visually represents the timing, duration, and human resource requirements of project tasks, with each task represented as a horizontal bar whose length is proportional to the time required to complete it
All the organizational activities surrounding the adoption, management, and regular reuse of an innovation, such as a new information system
A detailed statement of the information needs that a new system must satisfy; identifies who needs what information, and when, where, and how the information is needed
Information systems plan
A road map indicating the direction of systems development: the rationale, the current situation, the management strategy, the implementation plan, and the budget.
Benefits that are not easily quantified; they include more efficient customer service or enhanced decision making.
Joint Application Design (JAD)
Process to accelerate the generation of information requirements by having end users and information systems specialists work together in intensive interactive design sessions
changes in hardware, software, documentation, or procedures to a production system to correct errors, meet new requirements, or improve processing efficiency
Mobile Web App
application residing on a server and accessed through the mobile web browser built into a smartphone or tablet computer
version of a regular website that is scaled down in content and navigation for easy access and search on a small mobile screen
a stand-alone application designed to run on a specific platform and device
Approach to systems development that uses the object as the basic unit of systems analysis and design. The system is modeled as a collection of objects and the relationship between them.
Organizational impact analysis
Study of the way a proposed system will affect organizational structure, attitudes, decision making, and operations.
A safe and conservative conversion approach in which both the old system and its potential replacement are run together for a time until everyone is assured that the new one functions correctly
a chart that graphically depicts project tasks and their interrelationships, showing the specific activities that must be completed before others can start
Introduces the new system in stages either by functions or by organizational units.
A strategy to introduce the new system to a limited area of the organization until it is proven to be fully functional; only then can the conversion to the new system across the entire organization take place
An analysis of the portfolio of potential applications within a firm to determine the risks and benefits, and to select among alternatives for information systems.
Specifications that describe the logic of the processes occurring within the lowest levels of a data flow diagram.
The stage after the new system is installed and the conversion is complete; during this time, the system is reviewed by users and technical specialists to determine how well it has met its original goals
a planned series of related activities for achieving a specific business objective
Application of knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to achieve targets within specified budget and time constraints
the process of building an experimental system quickly and inexpensively for demonstration and evaluation so that users can better determine information requirements
Rapid application development (RAD)
Process for developing systems in a very short time period by using prototyping, fourth-generation tools, and close teamwork among users and systems specialists
Request for Proposal (RFP)
A detailed list of questions submitted to vendors of software or other services to determine how well the vendor's product can meet the organization's specific requirements.
Responsive web design
Ability of a website to change screen resolution and image size automatically as a user switches to devices of different sizes, such as a laptop, tablet computer, or smartphone. Eliminates the need for separate design and development work for each new device.
Defines what work is or is not included in a project
A quick method for deciding among alternative systems based on a system of ratings for selected objectives.
System documentation showing each level of design, the relationship among the levels, and the overall place in the design structure; can document one program, one system, or part of one program.
refers to the fact that techniques are carefully drawn up, step by step, with each step building on a previous one
tests the functioning of the information system as a whole in order to determine if discrete modules will function together as planned
The analysis of a problem that the organization will try to solve with an information system
Details how a system will meet the information requirements as determined by the systems analysis
Systems development life cycle (SDLC)
A traditional methodology for developing an information system that partitions the systems development process into formal stages that must be completed sequentially with a very formal division of labor between end users and information systems specialists.
Benefits that can be quantified and assigned a monetary value; they include lower operational costs and increased cash flows
Plan prepared by the development team in conjunction with the users; it includes all the preparations for the series of tests to be performed on the system
the exhaustive and thorough process that determines whether the system produces the desired results under known conditions
The process of testing each program separately in the system. Sometimes called program testing
user-designer communications gap
The difference in backgrounds, interests, and priorities that impede communication and problem solving among end users and information systems specialists.
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