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Physics Definitions
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Gravity
Terms in this set (32)
normal force
The normal force, N, is the force or the component of a force which a surface exerts on an object with which it is in contact, and which is perpendicular to the surface.
frictional force
The frictional force, f, is the force that opposes the motion of an object and which acts parallel to the surface.
static frictional force
The static frictional force, f(s), is the force that opposes the tendency of motion of a stationary object relative to a surface.
kinetic frictional force
The kinetic frictional force, f(k), is the force that opposes the motion of a moving object relative to a surface.
Newton's first law of motion
A body will remain in its state of rest or motion at constant velocity unless a non-zero resultant/net force acts on it.
Newton's second law of motion
When a resultant/net force acts on an object, the object will accelerate in the direction of the force at an acceleration directly proportional to the force and inversely proportional to the mass of the object.
Newton's third law of motion
When one body exerts a force on a second body, the second body exerts a force of equal magnitude in the opposite direction on the first body.
Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation
Each body in the universe attracts every other body with a force that is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between their centres.
weight
Weight is the gravitational force the Earth exerts on any object on or near its surface.
momentum
Momentum is the product of an object's mass and its velocity.
Newton's second law of motion in terms of momentum
The resultant/net force acting on an object is equal to the rate of change of momentum of the object in the direction of the resultant/net force.
impulse
Impulse is the product of the resultant/net force acting on an object and the time the resultant/net force acts on the object.
closed/isolated system
A closed/an isolated system is a system on which the resultant/net external force is zero.
Principle of Conservation of Linear Momentum
The total linear momentum of a closed system remains constant (is conserved).
projectile
A projectile is an object upon which the only force acting is the force of gravity.
work
The work done on an object by a constant force F is FΔxcosθ, where F is the magnitude of the force, Δx the magnitude of the displacement, and θ the angle between the force and the displacement.
Work-Energy Theorem
The net work done on an object is equal to the change in the object's kinetic energy OR the work done on an object by a net/resultant force is equal to the change in the object's kinetic energy.
conservative force
A conservative force is a force for which the work done in moving an object between two points is independent of the path taken. (Examples are gravitational force, the elastic force in a spring, and electrostatic forces).
non-conservative force
A non-conservative force is a force for which the work done in moving an object between two points depends on the path taken. (Examples are frictional force, air resistance, tension in a chord, etc.)
Principle of Conservation of Mechanical Energy
The total mechanical energy (sum of gravitational potential energy and kinetic energy) in an isolated system remains constant.
power
Power is the rate at which work is done or energy is expended.
Doppler Effect
The Doppler Effect with sound is the change in frequency (or pitch) of the sound detected by a listener because the sound source and the listener have different velocities relative to the medium of sound propagation.
Coulomb's Law
The magnitude of the electrostatic force exerted by one point charge (Q1) on another point charge (Q2) is directly proportional to the product of the magnitudes of the charges and inversely proportional to the square of the distance (r) between them.
electric field
An electric field is a region of space in which an electric charge experiences a force. The direction of the electric field at a point is the direction that a positive test charge would move if placed at that point.
electric field strength
The electric field strength at a point is the electrostatic force experienced per unit positive charge placed at that point.
Ohm's Law
The potential difference across a conductor is directly proportional to the current in the conductor at constant temperature.
power (electric circuits)
Power is the rate at which work is done.
RMS Voltage
Equivalent to the direct current voltage that will produce the same heating effect
RMS Current
Equivalent to the direct current current that will produce the same heating effect
photoelectric effect
the process whereby electrons are ejected from a metal surface when light of suitable frequency is incident on that surface
threshold frequency
minimum frequency of light needed to emit electrons from a certain metal surface
work function
minimum energy that an electron in the metal needs to be emitted from the metal surface
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