US History Ch.1
Terms in this set (56)
The earth is approximately how many years old?
Geologically speaking, what is the oldest mountain range in North America?
What is the proof?
Erosion has worn down the mountains
Originally, earth had only one super-continent. What is the proof for this fact? What is the name for earth's former super-continent?
Identical species of fish exist today in freshwater lakes on different continents. Pangaea
What caused the breakup of Pangaea?
Shifting of earth's tectonic plates
The earth's six continents were in place by about _____ million years ago.
What became the largest watershed in North America?
The last Ice Age occurred about _____ million years ago. The ice covered North America down to the ________ River Valley in the East to the ____________ in the West. The ice began melting as the earth warmed up about ______________ years ago.
2, Ohio, Dakotas, 15,000
During the last Ice Age, humans trekked from Eurasia into North America beginning about ____________ years ago. They traveled by ____________or followed their food supply (herds of animals) across a land bridge known as __________________.
30,000, water, Beringia
The overland migration to North America continued until about ____________ years ago, when, due to global warming, ocean levels rose creating the Bering Strait that cut the land route from Eurasia to North America.
Civilization in the Americas dates back to circa ________________. The first civilizations in the Americas were the _____________ nation of present-day Mexico and the ___________ nation of modern-day Peru.
1200 BCE, Olmec, Chavin
By the time Europeans arrived in the Americans, the native population may have been as high as ____ million. These natives developed diverse cultures in response to their ____________________.
List the 3 greatest native civilizations that evolved in the Americas. What made these 3 great civilizations possible?
Aztec, Maya, Inca; the staple food of corn
Natives in Mexico were the first to "domesticate" corn, beginning about _____________ years ago.
When did the knowledge of corn cultivation reach the present-day United States and where was it first grown here? What generic name did the Spanish give to natives of the Southwest?
7,000; 1200 BCE, the Southwest , Pueblo
Characterize the natives of the Southwest.
Lived in multi-storied adobe buildings. Raised corn. Anasazis built a 600-room complex at Chaco Canyon in New Mexico.
What did the natives of the Ohio-Mississippi River valleys become associated with?
Mound building; trade network
What was the largest city of the moundbuilders? What modern-day metropolis is this city near? What was the most notable town of the moundbuilders in Alabama?
Cahokia, St. Louis, Moundville
Corn production did not reach the South until circa ____________ CE. Southern Indians developed the ________________________ method of farming which boosted agricultural production.
List the "Five Civilized Tribes" of the South.
Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, Seminole
The Iroquois of the Northeast became known for their loose military alliance known as the ________________________.
Indians of the Northwest did little farming because of the abundance of ________ and nutritious wild plants.
At the time of Columbus' arrival, what was the approximate number of natives living in the present-day United States? Offer a general and brief description of these cultures.
5 million. Nomadic or semi-nomadic. Lived in small, temporary villages. Society was matrilinear. Women farmed; men fish, hunted, and made war. No concept of private ownership. Little impact on the environment.
Construct a timeline using all the dates in this assignment.
4.5 billion years ago—Earth comes into existence
10 million years ago—Pangeaea breaks up into 6 continents
2 million years ago—Last Ice Age
10,000 years ago—Earth was warming. Ice melting/retreating. Beringia flooded over.
7,000 years ago or 5,000 BCE—Corn grown in Mexico
3200 years ago or 1200 BCE—First civilizations in the Americas, Olmec & Chavin; Corn cultivation began in the Southwest
1000 years ago or 1000 CE—Corn cultivation began in the South
According to recent DNA studies at Harvard, how many different Indian (language) groups came to America?
3, in successive waves
When did they come?
15,000 BCE; 5,000 BCE; 3,000 BCE
What do anthropologists (scientists who study human movement) call this first group of Asians coming to North America?
What caused early humans to cross Beringia into North America?
They crossed following their food supply
After crossing, these First Americans were confined to the Alaska-Yukon area. Why?
Passages north, south, and east were blocked by glacial ice.
In regard to this confinement, what eventually happened by approximately 13,000 BCE?
An ice-free corridor opened to the South
How do anthropologists explain the fact that there are some human sites that pre-date the opening of the ice-free corridor?
Some early humans moved by boat down the west coast before the corridor opened.
What did humans in North America eat during the Paleo (Stone Age) Period?
What characterized Clovis Culture?
Improved technology to kill big game.
What caused big game to die out circa 9000 BCE during the Paleo Period?
Over-hunting and global warming
By the Archaic Period humans lived in larger groups and became semi-nomadic. What kind of game did they hunt?
What storage technology was developed during this period?
In the Archaic Period early humans often lived in what kind of shelter?
What is a prime example of this in Alabama (dating to circa 12,000 BCE)?
Russell Cave in Jackson County
What was the most important event in early human history that occurred in the Archaic Period and change human destiny in the Americas?
Corn production began in the highlands of Mexico circa 5,000 BCE
By the Woodland Period Natives lived in clans that formed the basis for tribes. What is a clan?
An extended family
What was the most sophisticated weapons technology to develop during the Woodland Period?
Bow & arrow
The first Indian art probably appeared on what?
What was the exception to the semi-nomadic lifestyle of North American Indians during the Mississippian Period?
Mound building societies
Where was Alabama's largest mound builders' city?
Where was the largest mound builders' city in the United States?
Chunkey is an example of what that developed among Indians during the Mississippian Period?
By the time Columbus arrived, there were perhaps ___ million people living in the Americas. They lived in tribal societies and spoke approximately ___ different languages.
How many Indians were living just in North America when Columbus arrived?
What eliminated 90% of the Indian population in the Americas within 150 years of Columbus' arrival?
In the 1830's, the US government moved Indians east of the Mississippi to reservations located within the present-day state of ____.
In 1887, the US government changed its policy of confining Indians to reservations to ____ them into society.This was accomplished with the Dawes Act.
In the 1930's, through legislation known as the ___, the US government reversed its policy and recreated the reservation system which continues to this day.
What is the present Indian population of the US?
How many federally recognized tribes are there today?
How many reservations are currently in place?
Alabama's one reservation is for the Poarch ____ Indians at Atmore.
Currently, what is the largest tribe of Natives in the US?
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