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World History Final Review
Terms in this set (243)
God, Glory, Gold
3 G's of European exploration
The exchange of plants, animals, diseases, and technologies between the Americas and the rest of the world following Columbus's voyages.
First European to make a permanent connection with the New World
Vasco Da Gama
the first European to reach India by sea sailing around the tip of Africa. (tapped into vast spice trade)
Portuguese navigator who led the Spanish expedition of 1519-1522 that was the first to sail around the world. (although he was killed in the Philippines)
Spanish conquistador who defeated the Aztecs and conquered Mexico (1485-1547)
Aztec woman who became an interpreter and guide for Hernando Cortes during his conquest of the Aztec empire
Spanish conquistator who conquered the Incas in Peru
A Spanish conqueror of the Americas
the last Aztec emperor in Mexico who was overthrown and killed by Hernando Cortes (1466-1520)
Councils made of rich Spanish colonists who give advise to the viceroys. Person living in Colonies born in Spain.
representatives of the Spanish monarch in Spain's colonial empire
Spanish-born, came to Latin America; ruled, highest social class.
a German monk who became one of the most famous critics of the Roman Catholic Chruch. In 1517, he wrote 95 theses, or statements of belief attacking the church practices.
Most important part - Faith is the only way to salvation and Bible is the only spiritual authority.
Gave European royals more control of their territory
Why did European leaders largely support Martin Luther?
Selling of forgiveness by the Catholic Church. It was common practice when the church needed to raise money. The practice led to the Reformation.
religious reformer who believed in predestination and a strict sense of morality for society (Switzerland)
English king who created the Church of England after the Pope refused to annul his marriage (divorce with Church approval)
what allowed Martin Luther to be successful against the Catholic Church where others had failed?
Council of Trent
Made during the Catholic Counter Reformation, this group set out to correct false teachings and corrupt priests and clergy members
Enlightenment Thinker who said we all have a right to: life, liberty and property (limited government)
believed that people are born selfish and need a strong central authority
supported the separation of church and state
said all people are in a "social contract" if the contract is broken, then people should replace it.
had the idea of having three branches of government so that no one branch may have too much power
English writer and early feminist who denied male supremacy and advocated equal education for women
It gave settlers the right to tax local Native Americans or to make them work. In exchange, these settlers were supposed to protect the Native American people and convert them to Christianity
Joint-Stock Company in London that received a charter for land in the new world. Charter guarantees new colonists same rights as people back in England.
Atlantic Slave Trade
Lasted from 16th century until the 19th century. Trade of African peoples from Western Africa to the Americas. One part of a three-part economical system known as the Middle Passage of the Triangular Trade.
Africa missed the industrial revolution
African history is not taught in their schools
constant warfare still continues
working population was sent away into slavery
How does slavery still affect Africa today?
Brazil and the Caribbean
which area in the New World received the highest volume of slaves?
the route in between the western ports of Africa to the Caribbean and southern U.S. that carried the slave trade (over 10 million slaves sent and 2 million died on the way)
Empire that was first to abolish slavery
This group was thrown out of China, thus establishing the Ming Dynasty
First emperor of the Ming dynasty
What did Emperor Hongwu give to the peasants who helped him defeat the Mongols
Civil Service Exam
used by the Ming and Qing Dynasty to determine strong government jobs and positions
Great Wall of China
world's longest man made structure built to keep invaders from the north out of China, started by the Qin Dynasty, expanded by the Han Dynasty,
A canal linking northern and southern China used to collect taxes from all regions and provinces
An imperial eunuch and Muslim, entrusted by the Ming emperor Yongle with a series of state voyages that took his gigantic ships through the Indian Ocean, from Southeast Asia to Africa.
palace where the Chinese emperor lived, contained 9,999 rooms and housed eunuch servants
Northeast Asian peoples who defeated the Ming Dynasty and founded the Qing Dynasty in 1644, which was the last of China's imperial dynasties.
location in northeast China were the Manchus were from
forced to wear queue
Han Chinese were forced to wear their hair in this style, to show submission to the Manchus
The Qing Dynasty's relationship with the outside world
Wars between Britain and the Qing Empire (mind 1800s), caused by the Qing government's refusal to let Britain import Opium. China lost and Britain and most other European powers were able to develop a strong trade presence throughout China against their wishes.
the largest civil war in Chinese history. An uprising of Chinese Christian Rebels against the Qing Dynasty. Over 20 million dead and dealt a severe blow to the Qing Dynasty.
1899 rebellion in Beijing, China started by a secret society of Chinese who opposed the "foreign devils". The rebellion was ended by British troops and further crippled the Qing Dynasty.
Famine, Natural Disasters, bad economy and foreigners/Christians
causes of the Boxer Rebellions in the Qing Dynasty
Uprising that began China's revolution against Qing imperial rule (15 provinces seceded from China)
this form of government replaced the Qing Dynasty forever. a government where people elect their leaders to represent them (eventually overthrown by communism)
100 year civil war
What was Japan experiencing before its unification?
Japanese noble families who controlled Japan before unification
this man established a shogunate that would dominate Japan for hundreds of years (first to unify modern Japan)
Heads of Daimyo family must live in the capital city every other year
Daimyo women and children stay in the capital city forever
Daimyo cannot repair their castles
arranged marriages for the daimyo
How did the Tokugawa Shogun keep control and peace in Japan
a system used by the shogunate to control the daimyo in Tokugawa Japan; the family of a daimyo lord was forced to stay at their residence in the capital whenever the lord was absent from it
Describe Japan's interaction with the outside world
this artificial Japanese island was the only place where outside traders could stay and conduct business
this country was the only one allowed to Deijima Island
Why did the Shogun allow Protestants but not Catholic Christians
Catholics were loyal to the pope and never the Shogun (Protestants were likely to be more loyal to the shogun)
How were positions of power and status determined in Ming/Qing China and Tokugawa Japan?
China - level of job was determined by Civil Service Exam
Japan - a person was born into a Daimyo family that determined their power as an individual
A commodore in the American navy. He forced Japan into opening its doors to trade, thus brining western influence to Japan while showing American might.
The political program that followed the destruction of the Tokugawa Shogunate in 1868, in which a collection of young leaders set Japan on the path of centralization, industrialization, and imperialism.
an empire formed by outside conquerors who unified the regions that they conquered through their mastery of firearms
tolerated but forced to pay higher taxes
How were Christians treated in the Ottoman Empire?
Military and political leader with absolute authority over a Muslim country
the Ottoman sultan's chief minister, who led the meetings of the imperial council
provincial ruler in the Ottoman empire (local Ottoman leaders)
a group of religious advisers to the ottoman sultan; this group administered the legal system and schools for educating Muslims
What rights did Ottoman women have?
right to hold office
right to divorce
right to inheritance
no child marriages
Christian children taken by Turks and raised as soldiers - as Muslims. No marriage, no ties. Added to Turkish military which was well equipped until mid 17th. century thereafter got behind other forces in Europe.
A Shi'ite Muslim dynasty that ruled in Persia (Iran and parts of Iraq) from the 16th-18th centuries that had a mixed culture of the Persians, Ottomans and Arabs.
supreme leader of the Safavids (Iran and Iraq)
What was the main difference between the Safavids and Ottomans and Moguls?
the Safavids were Shiite Muslims, whereas Ottomans and Moguls were Sunni Muslim
Iran and Iraq
the main location of the Safavid Empire
founder of the moguls (good negotiator and avoided war with Hindus)
The most famous Muslim ruler of India during the period of Mogul rule. Famous for his religious tolerance, his investment in rich cultural feats, and the creation of a centralized governmental administration
Mogul leader who was a weak ruler and allowed his wife to be ruler (taxed the people heavily)
Last ruler of the Moguls. Not religiously tolerant of Hindus, depleted wealth, constant civil wars. The empire died with him.
before it was known as modern Turkey it was called this:
Why can the Mogul Dynasty be questionable as a Gunpowder Empire?
Moguls were predominantly Hindu and not Muslim
what modern day country was the Mogul Dynasty located?
Mogul dynasty was predominantly this religion, controlled by Muslims
How were Hindus treated by the Muslims
were tolerated until Aurungzeb came to power
french and idian war
this war placed major financial strains on the British Empire, forcing them to raise taxes on the Americans
Great Britain's attempt to make its money back through taxing all forms of paper
The first bloodshed of the American Revolution (1770), as British guards at the Boston Customs House opened fire on a crowd killing five Americans
Boston Tea Party
A 1773 protest against British taxes in which Boston colonists disguised as Mohawks dumped valuable tea into Boston Harbor. (final straw for the British)
in response to Boston Tea Party, 4 acts passed in 1774, Port of Boston closed, reduced power of assemblies in colonies, permitted royal officers to be tried elsewhere, provided for quartering of troop's in barns and empty houses
this enlightenment thinker encouraged the Americans to become independent (social contract with government was broken)
Articles of Confederation
A very weak constitution that governed America following the American revolution. Couldn't collect taxes, no president, no national army or navy, states had too much power, no centralized government)
Leader of the Federalists party. Supported a constitution, national bank, collection of taxes, a constitution and central government has more power than states.
Wrote the Declaration of Independence and lead the anti-federalists. Supported states rights and limited government.
A structure of government proposed by James Madison in which the powers of the government are separated into three branches: executive, legislative, and judicial.
French estate that represented the Catholic Church (.5%)
French estate that represented the king and members of royalty (1.5%)
French estate that represented 98% of the people
a tax that only the peasant class was forced to pay every year. 1st and 2nd estate exempt from paying
What two things were bankrupting the French Empire?
American Revolution and the spending of the Royal Family
Tennis Court Oath
A pledge made by the members of France's National Assembly in 1789, in which they vowed to continue meeting until they had drawn up a new constitution
financial expert of Louis XVI, he advised Louis to reduce court spending, reform his government, abolish tarriffs on internal trade, but the First and Second Estates got him fired
"The incorruptable;" the leader of the bloodiest portion of the French Revolution. He set out to build a republic of virtue but became too violent and was executed.
Overthrew the French revolutionary government (The Directory) in 1799 and became emperor of France in 1804. Failed to defeat Great Britain and abdicated in 1814. Returned to power briefly in 1815 but was defeated and died in exile.
this abolished the taille for peasants, estate class was abolished, united all people in France under one law
Battle of Waterloo
This was the battle that Napoleon lost after his return from Elba that ended his reign as French ruler (died in exile in Saint Helena)
What FOUR things allowed Great Britain to lead the Industrial Revolution
When smaller farms were purchased and fenced off, forcing farmers into the city
What happened to Britain's population during the agrarian revolution?
it increased exponentially
Why were children targeted by factory owners as a good source of labor?
seen as a cheap source of labor and easily controlled
this allowed factories to be located anywhere, rather than by running water sources
A machine for cleaning the seeds from cotton fibers, invented by Eli Whitney in 1793 (increased cotton production and the need for slaves)
Production method that breaks down a complex job into a series of smaller tasks (developed by Henry Ford)
Scottish economist who wrote the Wealth of Nations a precursor to modern Capitalism. (limited government is involved and people can trade freely)
a political and economic theory of social organization that advocates that the means of production, distribution, and exchange should be owned equally or regulated by the community as a whole.
founder of socialism and communism - the state controls the mean of production and works to establish a classless society (believes all societies are in a class struggle)
capitalism in one word
socialism in one word
communism in one word
Scottish missionary and explorer who went missing for 30 years. Maps used to navigate imperialists in Africa
Sir Henry Morton Stanley
Welsh journalist and explorer who led an expedition to Africa in search of David Livingstone and found him (encouraged Europeans to colonize in Africa)
this European state was the first to colonize in Africa (set up rubber trade in the Congo)
King Leopold II
the Belgian king who opened up the African interior to European trade along the Congo River (murdered 10 million Africans in the rubber trade)
Meeting at which 14 European countries portioned Africa between themselves
this was overlooked at the Berlin Conference when partitioning Africa
Dutch settlers in South Africa
What was the difference in British and Dutch treatment of Africans in South Africa
blacks were allowed to vote under the British, where as only wealthy white men were allowed to vote under Boer control
founder of the De Beers diamond company. He was also the Prime Minister of South Africa.
this resource was extracted from South Africa
diamonds mined in war zones with profits used to fund a revolution or rebellion
this resource was harvested by the French on the West Coast of Africa
raw materials for Industrial Revolution, human labor and prestige
Why were Europeans interested in imperialism with Africa?
Indian troops who served in the British army
The revolt of Indian soldiers in 1857 against certain practices that violated religious customs; also known as the Sepoy Mutiny. (brought India under complete British rule)
The first M in the MAINA causes of WW1
first A in the MAINA causes of WW1
I in the MAINA causes of WW1
N in the MAINA cause of WW1
Assasination of Archduke Ferdinand
second A in the MAINA causes of WW1
An alliance between Great Britain, France and Russia in the years before WWI.
An alliance between Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy in the years before WWI.
Attack plan by Germans, proposed by Schliffen, lightning quick attack against France. Proposed to go through Belgium then attack France, Belgium resisted, other countries took up their aid, long fight, used trench warfare.
Battle of the Marne
A major French victory against the invading German army at the start of WWI. In reality lost Germany the war because the Schlieffen Plan stalled here)
A form of warfare in which opposing armies fight each other from trenches dug in the battlefield.
A secret German message to Mexico supporting the Mexican Government in regaining Arizona and Texas if the Mexicans declared war on the United States, a factor propelling the United States into World War I in April 1917
Russian founder of the Bolsheviks and leader of the Russian Revolution and first head of the USSR (1870-1924).
Land, peace, bread
What did Vladimir Lenin promise the Russians for their support of the Bolsheviks?
Germany could now send all its forces to the Western Front
How did the exit of Russia change the direction of World War One?
A self-proclaimed Russian holy man and prominent figure at the court of Czar Nicholas II. He was viewed as corrupt, and support for czarist Russia deteriorated because of him.
28th president of the United States, known for World War I leadership, Treaty of Versailles, sought 14 points post-war plan, League of Nations
British prime minister, although he was re-elected for his popular campaign of making Germany pay for the war, he ended up fighting the most for German interests in the Versailles Treaty because he feared communism
French statesman who played a key role in negotiating the Treaty of Versailles (placed the harshest reprimands on Germany)
Treaty of Versailles
Treaty that ended WW I. It blamed Germany for WW I and handed down harsh punishment. $33 billion in reprimands, 100,000 man army, 36 ship navy and no airforce, lost all colonies and 13% of its territory
A form of government in which the ruler controls all aspects of a person's life
Lenin's plan to retain gov't control of large industry but allow small businesses and farms to be privately owned; generally helped Russia's economy
Bolshevik revolutionary, head of the Soviet Communists after 1924, and dictator of the Soviet Union from 1928 to 1953. He led the Soviet Union with an iron fist, using Five-Year Plans to increase industrial production and terror to crush opposition
a large government-controlled farm formed by combining many small farms (used by Stalin to feed people so they could work the factories as a means of industrializing)
Stalin's Five Year Plan
Goals that would promote rapid industrial growth and to strengthen national defense in USSR
A campaign of terror directed at eliminating anyone who threatened Stalin's power
A political system headed by a dictator that calls for extreme nationalism and racism and no tolerance of opposition (state's needs comes before the citizen)
Why were the Italians upset with the Treaty of Versailles?
the Italians were promised land by the Allies but were denied at the Treaty of Versailles
Fascist Dictator of Italy that at first used bullying to gain power, then never had full power.
Mussolini March on Rome
Mussolini and 40,000 supporters marched on Rome to seize power from Italian King Emanuel III
Mussolinis secret police to spy on people and stop people opposing Mussolini (also controlled newspaper, radio, films, etc.
League of Nations
this international peace-keeping body was appeasing Hitler as he began to advance throughout Europe
a failed attempt in 1923 by the Nazi party to take over the government in Munich (a city in Germany)
'My Struggle' by hitler, a book that was a best seller and made him very rich and famous
living space for ethnic Germans
to the Nazis, the Germanic peoples who formed a "master race"
enabled Hitler to get rid of the Reichstag parliament and pass laws without reference to parliament
Jews, handicapped, homosexuals, gypsies, communists
type of people targeted by the Nazi state during the Holocaust
1935 laws defining the status of Jews and withdrawing citizenship from persons of non-German blood.
Germany and Japan were both desperate for this material during World War Two
Chinese Civil War
this internal conflict encouraged Japan to invade China during the 2nd Sino Japanese War
Rape of Nanjing
Japanese attack on Chinese capital from 1937-1938 when Japanese aggressorts slaughtered 100,000 civilians and raped thousands of women in order to gain control of China.
Base in hawaii that was bombed by japan on December 7, 1941, which eagered America to enter the war. (Japanese failed to hit aircraft carriers and oil tanks)
Molotov Ribbentrop Pact
Russian and German non aggression agreement, not to attack each other, also, divide up Poland
Battle of Midway
US navy broke Japanese codes and thus destroyed four Japanese carriers and forced them to go on the defense for remainder of the war.
Battle of Britain
An aerial battle fought in World War II in 1940 between the German Luftwaffe (air force), which carried out extensive bombing in Britain, and the British Royal Air Force, which offered successful resistance.
Allied invasion of Western Europe via amphibious assault through the beaches of France
Code name for the U.S. first nuclear program. Was used as a means to get Japan to surrender, while also
Japanese Internment Camps
The forcible relocation of approximately 110,000 Japanese Americans to housing facilities called "War Relocation Camps", in the wake of Imperial Japan's attack on Pearl Harbor. (USA did not want them living near air bases, ship yards and oil fields).
Alliance of Great Britain, Soviet Union, United States, and France during World War II.
Alliance of Germany, Italy, and Japan during World War II.
July 26, 1945 - Allied leaders Truman, Stalin and Churchill met in Germany to set up zones of control and to inform the Japanese that if they refused to surrender at once, they would face total destruction.
Series of trials in 1945 conducted by an International Military Tribunal in which former Nazi leaders were charged with crimes against peace, crimes against humanity, and war crimes
After WWII, Germany was divided into two countries, this part was communist in government and had a socialist command economy
A conflict that was between the US and the Soviet Union. The nations never directly confronted each other on the battlefield but deadly threats went on for years.
North Atlantic Treaty Organization; an alliance made to defend one another if they were attacked by any other country; US, England, France, Canada, Western European countries
An alliance between the Soviet Union and other Eastern European nations. This was in response to the NATO
President Truman's policy of providing economic and military aid to any country threatened by communism or totalitarian ideology
American policy of resisting further expansion of communism around the world
A theory that if one nation comes under Communist control, then neighboring nations will also come under Communist control.
A United States program of economic aid for the reconstruction of Europe (1948-1952)
Large-scale emigration by talented people.
A Soviet leader during the Cuban Missile Crisis and Berlin Wall
John F. Kennedy
President of the US during the Bay of Pigs Invasion and the Cuban Missile Crisis
airlift in 1948 that supplied food and fuel to citizens of west Berlin when the Russians closed off land access to Berlin
Chinese Communist leader from 1949 to 1976.
this island was a refuge for Chinese nationalists who escaped the communist takeover under Mao Zedong
Great Leap Forward
Started by Mao Zedong, combined collective farms into People's Communes, failed and resulted in the world's largest famine (36 million dead)
equal rice distribution
Mao Zedong promised this to the Chinese people during the Great Leap Forward.
this group in Communist China demanded communism to end and open trade to the west
Tianamen Square Massacre
protest by people of the Republic of China 1989, mostly students, violently broken up by police, 1,000-4,000 killed
The conflict between Communist North Korea and Non-Communist South Korea. The United Nations (led by the United States) helped South Korea.
Commander of the UN forces at the beginning of the Korean War, however President Harry Truman removed him from his command after MacArthur expressed a desire to bomb Chinese bases in Manchuria.
Dividing line between North and South Korea
A prolonged war (1954-1975) between the communist armies of North Vietnam who were supported by the Chinese and the non-communist armies of South Vietnam who were supported by the United States.
Ho Chi Minh
1950s and 60s; communist leader of North Vietnam; used geurilla warfare to fight anti-comunist, American-funded attacks under the Truman Doctrine; brilliant strategy drew out war and made it unwinnable
Ho Chi Minh Trail
A network of paths used by North Vietnam to transport supplies to the Vietcong in South Vietnam
a toxic leaf-killing chemical sprayed by U.S. planes in Vietnam to expose Vietcong hideouts
Americans withdrew from South Vietnam (communist spread to the entire state of Vietnam
What was the result of American involvement in Vietnam?
Cuban Missile Crisis
The 1962 confrontation bewteen US and the Soviet Union over Soviet missiles in Cuba.
this was the USA's response to the Cuban Missile Crisis
sent nuclear weapons to cuba
this was the communist response to JFK's failed Bay of Pigs assault
Bay of Pigs
In April 1961, a group of Cuban exiles organized and supported by the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency landed on the southern coast of Cuba in an effort to overthrow Fidel Castro. When the invasion ended in disaster, President Kennedy took full responsibility for the failure.
Why were Europeans and Americans worried about Latin, Asian and African colonies getting their independence during the Cold War
they were afraid the newly independent colonies would fall under the influence of communism
A policy initiated by Mikhail Gorbachev that involved restructuring of the social and economic status quo in communist Russia towards a market based economy and society
a policy of the Soviet government allowing freer discussion of social problems (USSR satellite state demanded their independence)
What did the USSR and USA agree to as a means to end the Cold War?
disarmed nuclear weapons in 1987
The year of the collapse of the Soviet Union.
Head of the Soviet Union from 1985 to 1991. His liberalization effort improved relations with the West, but he lost power after his reforms led to the collapse of Communist governments in eastern Europe.
Sultan Abdul Hamid
Ottoman sultan who attempted to return to despotic absolutism during reign from 1878 to 1908; nullified constitution and restricted civil liberties; deposed in coup in 1908
A coalition starting in the late 1870s of various groups favoring modernist liberal reform of the Ottoman Empire. It was against monarchy of Ottoman Sultan and instead favored a constitution. In 1908 they succeed in establishing a new constitutional era.
To undermine Ottoman Rule after WW1, the British encouraged this throughout the Middle East and North Africa
the Turkish government organized the department of the armenians in the Ottoman Empire and over a million were murdered or starved - one of the first genocides of the 20th centuries
Mustafa Kemal Ataturk
Turkish nationalist leader who became the first president of modern Turkey in the 1920's and set about to modernize and Westernize Turkey, including making it more secular
Besides using Arabic characters, Mustafa Kemal Ataturk told his subjects to start using these letters
allowed to vote, divorce, inheritance and marriage
What rights did Mustafa Kemal Ataturk give to Turkish women through modernization of the law?
this country was partitioned by the British as a means to establish a Jewish state
this event in Europe encouraged many Jews to return to their ancestral home in the Holy Land
How many Arab states are there?
What is the only Jewish state in the world?
Founder of Judaism who was promised by God that his son would have a land unto his people.
Abraham's son by Hagar, Sarah's servant. The founder of the Arab tribes
Son of Abraham and Sarah (Jesus and the Christian and Jewish followers descend through him)
A dispersion of people from their homeland
West Bank and Gaza
Two controversial parts of the Middle East that are contested over by Israelis and Palestinians
Six Days War
1967 clash between Israel and the Arab world; Israel was victorious
An agreement in 1993 in which Israeli prime minister Rabin granted Palestinian self-rule in the Gaza Strip and the West Bank.
a militant Islamic fundamentalist political movement that opposes peace with Israel and uses terrorism as a weapon
what is the status of Palestinian statehood?
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