Chem 3653 Semester

Amino Acids
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Favors productsKeq greater than 1Favors reactantsKeq less than 1Reductiongain of electronsOxidationloss of electronsMiller experimentExperiment that modeled Earth's primordial atmosphere in the lab and produced amino acids. (i.e. organic matter from Earth's primordial conditions)AdenineA component of nucleic acids, energy-carrying molecules such as ATP, and certain coenzymes. Chemically, it is a purine base.polyA polymeraseadds adenine nucleotides to the 3' endProkaryotesBacteria and ArchaeaEukaryotesanimals, plants, fungi, protistsNucleotides have a phosphate group.What is the difference between nucleotides and nucleosides?R configurationclockwise rotationS configurationcounterclockwise rotationGlyceraldehydesimplest aldose the reference compound for the D, L systemAngstrom10^-10 measurement4/3πr³Volume of a sphere4πr²4πr²Surface area of a sphereV=s³V=s³Volume of a cubeelectronegativity decreases from top to bottom and increases from left to rightElectronegativity trendcovalent bondStrongest type of bondcharge-charge interactionsbetween oppositely charged side chains in the interior of a protein also stabilize protein structuredipole-dipole interactionsattractions between oppositely charged regions of polar moleculesYesAre noncovalent interactions reversible?hydrophobic effectThe exclusion of nonpolar molecules by polar molecules, which drives biological processes such as the formation of cell membranes and the folding of proteins. Nonpolar molecules aggregate togetheramphiphilic moleculesA molecule having both hydrophobic (nonpolar) and hydrophilic (polar) regionsphospholipid bilayera two-layered arrangement of phosphate and lipid molecules that form a cell membrane, the hydrophobic lipid ends facing inward and the hydrophilic phosphate ends facing outward.7.35-7.45Physiological phpH = pKa + log [A-]/[HA]Henderson-Hasselbalch equationtitration curvegraph showing how the pH of a solution changes as acidic and basic solutions are added togetherFriedrich Miescherdiscovered nucleic acids from bandaid pusGriffith's experimentgenetic material could be transferred between dead bacteria and living bacteria, experiment done with miceAvery, MacLeod, McCartyProved that DNA is the hereditary material -without it, death occursHershey-Chase Experimentconfirmed that DNA is the genetic material because only radiolabeled DNA could be found in bacteriophage-infected bacteriaWatson and CrickDeveloped the double helix model of DNA.Rosalind FranklinWoman who generated x-ray images of DNA and provided Watson and Crick with key data about DNAWatson-Crick pairing2 strands of DNA, held together throughout their length by hydrogen bonds between bases on opposite strands. A-T G-Cribose has a 2'-OH group and deoxyribose has a 2'-HDifference between ribose and deoxyriboseAdenosinea nucleoside; a combination of ribose and adenine; serves as a neuromodulator in the brainKetoWhich form predominates between Keto and Enol?Alanine, Ala, A