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nr 206 quiz
Terms in this set (38)
how well-intentioned problem solvers may fail or make problems worse
-not understanding how they and others think/approach problems
-not researching the REAL problem
-enter discussions with predetermined solutions in mind
-lack true open-mindedness
-fixate on finding the Right Answer
-fail to recognize perspectives are shaped by different forces, no one force is better
-don't follow a problem-solving approach that both insiders and outsiders can see/understand
Finding solutions to environmental problems requires collaboration between multiple stakeholders but can be difficult unless both parties...
1) agree on the REAL problem
2) acknowledge/respect differences
three reasons why it is important to involve multiple parties:
1) people need to feel they are part of the process to b4 they'll buy into solutions
2) a team is more effective than a group of individuals
3) all problems are created/complicated by people
positive and negative about working with like-minded people:
pos: less arguing/conflict
neg: false assumptions that one approach is right, black/white mentality
What is the difference between education and indoctrination?
-education: informing about a problem
-indoctrination: bending others' minds to see the world as you to (convincing)
People often attack problem-solving in three main approaches:
1) common sense -> practical
2) formulaic -> certain, testable, not risky
3) out of the box thinking -> many options
What is the definition of a "problem"?
problem = anything you'd like to be different
-emphasis on outcome to recognize how to achieve success
disciplined, rational analysis
provides insight to how/why a decision was chosen & why it's fair
What are the three types of problems?
3) unstructured -> most difficult
What are the two most common failures when addressing environmental problems?
1) failure to be clear about the real problem
2) failure to be clear about what constitutes problem-solving success
Definition (of problem) -> most important
What are some qualities of good 'Objectives'?
What different types of constraints should you be aware of?
who is part of the problem, geographic location, time money, legal, impacts on humans/nature
Real Problems v. Preconceived Solutions
Real problem - clearly identifies thing you want changed
preconceived soln - advances a prefabricated strategy
What are the two questions one must ask to identify the real problem?
1. how would the situation need to be different to feel the problem is solved?
2. what would you need to see/feel/experience to feel the problem is no longer a problem?
The 5 techniques Hughes suggests for Identifying the Real Problem are:
1. talking it out
2. repeat "why"
3. exploratory writing
4. reality listing
5. walking in other people's shoes
mini goals that allow you to solve your problem incrementally
Goal v. Objective
goal - summarizes what a situation would look like if a problem has been completely solved
objective - specific outcomes that need to occur to reach your goal
real & imagined boundaries
-important b/c: you place the problem in context, you can focus your energy,. makes problem solving easier
quick explanation of the real problem, why it's important, & what is an acceptable outcome
how to find ideas when there are none
1. defer all judgment
2. worry less what others think
3. discuss your problem w/ people outside your circle
What are the four basic precepts needed to brainstorm effectively?
1. no judgement/evaluating ideas
3. quantity > quality
4. piggy-back on ideas
Positive/negative forces analysis
pos: sustain/further desired goal
neg: make problem worse
identifies what you want in the end. useful for creating new ideas
organizes pieces of the problem into a sequential flow
tackle parts of a problem one at a time
Generating Ideas When Your Group Is Dysfunctional
Which 2 techniques are useful here?
2. nominal group technique - writing anonymous ideas
invokes outside stimuli -> new thoughts
Name two of the "brain fertilization" techniques
1. incubation - let time
2. synonyms - for each word in problem definition
effortless decision making
requires no output of mental energy (passive)
effortful decision making
requires conscious output of mental energy (active)
The First Part of Decision Making
evaluating strengths/weaknesses of options (i.e. cost-benefit, troubleshooting)
The three generally recognized types of environmental impacts are
direct, indirect, cumulative
The three parts of effective troubleshooting are
1. Drafting an expansive list of issues that might affect the problem-solving outcome
2. Identifying which issues on your troubleshooting list are most likely to interfere with your problem-solving effort
3. Developing and implementing strategies to minimize their possible impacts
The Second Part of Decision Making
selecting which options to implement
To reach a decision, you have three choices
1. make the decision yourself (executive decision)
3. reach a consensus (find common ground) -> best for working with polarizing issues
two experimentation techniques that are effective at finding flaws in your strategies
1. troubleshooting -> judge possible strategies
2. decision tree flowcharts -> reveals potential difficulties
six concepts to keep in mind to be a "doer"
3. use psychology
4. consider timing
5. pay attention to people
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