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Biology Introduction to Genetics Vocabulary
Terms in this set (26)
long chains of genes made up of DNA in the nucleus
a segment of DNA that controls a hereditary trait
the characteristics that an organism has, such as hair color, eye color, tall/short, skin color
an Austrian monk born in 1822 who is known as the father of genetics
Mendel gave us the three basic laws of inheritance which are still used today:
law of dominance and recessiveness
the principle of segregation
the principle of independent assortment
Since the male and female reproductive structures are relatively enclosed inside the flower, the sperm of the flower will fertilize the egg of the same flower.
Mendel knew that these pea plants were _____________________. This means that if they are allowed to self-pollinate, they would produce offspring identical to themselves.
the offspring of parents with different traits
Some alleles are dominant and some are recessive. A dominant allele can cover up or mask a recessive allele.
principal of dominance and recessiveness
If the dominant allele is present in an offspring:
the dominant trait will show up in the offspring
The recessive allele's trait will show up in the offspring only if:
the dominant allele is not present
Recessive traits show up in the offspring only if:
the offspring receives recessive alleles from each parent
sex cells or egg and sperm cells
An offspring will inherit two alleles for a trait, one allele from each parent. The combination of alleles received by the offspring may be either _________________.
homozygous or heterozygous
the two alleles are the same: TT or tt
the two alleles are different: Tt
The principle of Independent Assortment states that:
when gametes are formed, the alleles of a gene for one trait segregate independently of the alleles of a gene for another trait
When two traits are being considered, the Punnett square will need _________ squares.
the genetic makeup of an organism
the physical characteristics of an organism - what the organism looks like
a diagram showing the allele combinayions that might result from a genetic cross between two parents.
An alternative form of a gene
A part of the cell containing DNA and RNA and responsible for growth and reproduction
A capital letter represents a ___________ allele.
A lower case letter represents a ___________________ allele.
During meiosis, the alleles separate from each other to make the gametes
Principle of Segregation
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