147 terms

English Grammar 2

this is english grammar because I have a psychopathic english teacher who makes it her point to make kids who cannot remember things well learn grammar repetatively. :/
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Terms in this set (...)

Proper noun
name of particular person, place, or thing
proper adjective
formed by proper nouns. They are capitalized and often end in
-n, -an, -ian, -ese, -ish
What things relating to people and culture must be capitalized?
initials that stand for names, abbreviations for titles, title without name, etc
When are season's capitalized?
When they are personified
When are school courses capitalized?
When it is a language, or when it is a specific course.
Are compass direction capitalized?
only when referring to specific areas or regions
When are places capitalized? (like mountains)
Always except for the prepositions
are nationalities capitalized?
yes
are languages capitalized?
yes
are class levels lowercase?
yes
conjunction
a word that connects words, or a group of words
coordinating conjunction
connects words with equal importance (=)
correlative conjunction
word pairs that join words or groups of words
subordinating conjunction
introduce dependent (subordinate) clauses and joins independent and dependent clauses
conjunctive adverb
used to express relationships between independent clauses
reflexive pronoun
represents the subject of its clause
intensive pronoun
emphasizes noun or pronoun in the same sentence
indefinite pronoun
referes to unidentified nouns
relative pronoun
introduces a dependent clause and refers back to a word
adjective
word that describes a noun
adverb
modifies verbs, adjectives, or other adverbs. answers questions like where, how, why, to what extent?
simple subject
key word or words that tell what the sentence is about
simple predicate
the verb
compound subject
made up of two or more subjects that share a verb
compound verb
made up to verbs sharing a conjunction and have the same subject
compound predicate
made up of a compound verb and all the words that go with it
linking verb
links subject of sentence to a word in the predicate
action verb
expresses physical or mental action
transitive verb
an action verb that appears with a direct object
intransitive verb
an action verb without a direct object
predicate nominative
follows linking verb. nouns or pronouns that rename, identify, or define subjects
predicate adjective
describes subject by saying which one, what kind, how much, or how many. follows linking verb
direct object
word or group of words that receives the action of the verb
indirect object
word or group of words that tells to whom, to what, or for whom the action is done
participle
verb modified to be an adjective
participial phrase
a participle extended into a phrase
prepositional phrase
a preposition, its object ,and the modifier of the object
object of the preposition
the noun or pronoun that follows the preposition
appositive
noun that identifies or renames another noun or pronoun
independent clause
a clause (subject and verb) that is a complete thought and can stand alone as a sentence
dependent clause
a clause that cannot stand alone because it is not a complete thought
fragment
a piece of a sentence punctuated as if it were a full sentence. Does not contain both subject and verb
run-on sentence
two or more complete sentences written as one
conjunctive adverb
used to fix a run-on sentence, has a semi colon before and a comma following
nominative pronoun
do the actions in the sentence, he, she, it, etc
objective pronoun
form of personal pronoun. used when the pronoun functions as the direct object, indirect object, or prepositional object
modifiers before nouns
use an adjective if the word modifies the noun or pronoun, an adverb if it modifies a verb, adjective, or other adverb
pronoun-antecedent agreement
must agree in gender, number, and person
antecedent
noun or pronoun that a pronoun refers to or replaces
indefinite pronoun as antecedent
indefinite pronoun is the antecedent of a personal pronoun
elliptical comparison
a comparison made using "as" or "than" to begin a clause with words left out
subject- verb agreement
subject of a verb is never part of a phrase
collective noun
a group of people or things acting together
misplaced modifier
a phrase placed too far from the word it modifies making the meaning of the sentence unclear or incorrect
dangling phrase
a phrase intended to modify a word that is not in the sentence
possessive form of a singular noun or indefinite pronoun
's
possessive of a plural noun ending in s or es
'
possessive of a plural noun not ending in s
's
possessive of multiple nouns showing joint ownership
only add 's to the end of the final noun
possessive of multiple nouns showing individual ownership
's after all nouns
possessives of numbers, words used as words, and letters
's after
absence of numbers
apostrophe after removed numbers
absence of letters
apostrophe in between committed letters
titles of magazines, journals, newspapers, short stories, poems, book chapters, pages of a website, TV episodes, songs, etc
quotations around the title
titles of books, websites, plays, movies, TV shows, operas, dance performances, etc
italics or underline
punctuation with appositives
commas around the appositive
punctuation with conjunctive adverbs
commas around the conjunctive adverbs
punctuation with direct addresses
comma after direct address
punctuation with parenthesis
no emphasis commas, use to set apart unimportant information
punctuation of quotations within quotation
single quotations around quotes within quotes
punctuation with brackets
use for changing part of the quotation for clarification
punctuation with dashes
use when emphasizing an appositive
punctuation with hyphens
use when linking adjectives to same word for clarity
difference between alright and all right
alright is not a word, all right is
difference between all ready and already
"all ready" = completely prepared. " already" = so soon
difference between bad and badly
bad after linking verbs. badly after action verbs
difference between every day and everyday
"everyday" is an adjective, "every day" is an adjective + noun
difference between good and well
good is an adjective used to describe nouns, well is an adverb used to describe actions
difference between its and it's
"it's" is a conjunction of "it has" or or "it is", "its" is the possessive of "it"
difference between led and lead
the past tense of lead is led
the reason is because... fix
it is redundant. remove either the reason or because
difference between their, there, and they're
there - place
their - 3rd person plural possessive of "them"
they're - contraction of they are
difference between to, too, and two
to - used for the infinitive of a verb
too- as well, also
two- the number
difference between who's and whose?
who's - contraction of "who is?" or "who has?"
whose - possessive of who
difference between your and you're
your - ownership
you're - contraction of you are
when is "who" used?
when it is the subject of the sentence
when is "whom" used?
when it is the object of a verb or preposition
what are the 7 words that are always adjectives
the articles a, an, and the and the possessives my, our, your, and their
23 helping verbs
is, am, are, was, were, be, being, been,
have, has, had, do, does, did, shall, will, should, would, may, might, must,
can, could.
demonstrative pronouns
this, that, these, those
indefinite pronouns
another, any, both, each, either, many, neither, one, other, some (these become adjectives when used with a noun)
clause
contains simple subject and simple predicate. might or might not be a sentence "When he arrived home" "Where the animals live" "The sun rose slowly in the east"
Adjectives demonstrative pronouns
when used with a noun become adjective--- Demonstrative pronouns, this, that, these, those; interrogative pronouns, whose, which, what; and indefinite pronouns, another, any, both, each, either, many, neither, one, other, some;
Adjectives
which, whose, what kind, and how many - nouns

(adverbs- when, where, why, how action takes place)
Adjectives numbers
cardinal and ordinal numbers can be adjectives. Examples: ten students (cardinal), the tenth student (ordinal)
pronominal adjectives
Pronouns used as adjectives are called pronominal adjectives
adjective phrase or clause
modifies a noun. usually begin with who, which, that, whom, whose (but "that car" is different from "the car that is fast goes far" or "the car that I like goes fast" the first one is adjective, second is adjective phrase/clause)
adverbial clause
when, where, where, how. Usually at front of sentence. Look to see if the clause has to do with the subject- if it DOES, its adjective clause. If it has to do with the verb is adverbial
FAN BOYS
conjunctions used in compound sentences
For
And
Nor
But
Or
Yet
So
compound complex sentence
sentence with 2 or more independent clauses
common subordinating conjunctions
after
although
as
because
before
even if
even though
if
provided
rather than
since
so that
than
though
unless
until
whether
while

how
that
what
when
where
which
who
whom
whose
why

The relative pronouns above are the simple relative pronouns. You can also have compound ones. A compound relative pronoun is formed by adding either ever or soever to a simple pronoun.

whoever (who + ever)
whosever (whose + ever)
(Spelling rule: Don't allow ee.)
whosoever (who + soever)
whosesoever (whose + soever)
conjunctions
coordinating: FAN BOYS
Subordinating:
after
although
as
as if
as long as
as though
because
before
even if
even though
if
if only
in order that
now that
once
rather than
since
so that
than
that
though
till
unless
until
when
whenever
where
whereas
wherever
while
how to tell a complex from compound sentence
Should I tell my students that a sentence's structure can be determined based on the type of conjunction it has?
Yes, that is exactly what you should tell them.

If two clauses are connected with a coordinating conjunction, it's a compound sentence. FAN BOYS

If two clauses are connected with a subordinating conjunction, it's a complex sentence.
metonym
A figure of speech in which one word or phrase is substituted for another with which it is closely associated (such as "crown" for "royalty").
synechode
a figure of speech in which a part is used for the whole or the whole for a part, the special for the general or the general for the special, as in ten sail for ten ships or helping hands for workers
Phonology
studies how sounds function in a language or dialect
semantics
study of the meaning of language
syntax
study of the structure of SENTENCES
pragmatics
role of context in the interpretation of meaning.
morphology
study of the structure of WORDS
Paronomasia
a play on words; a pun.
paraphrase
rewrite especially to provide clarity or simplification of understanding of materal
homonym
two words that are spelled and pronounced the exact same way but have different meanings
homophone
two words spelled differently but sound same (phone = sound vs homonym with is nym=name spelled and sound same but different meanings)
define the suffix "-ness"
the state of being
define the suffix "-ate"
making or applying
define suffix "-able"
In a certain way
roman à clef
is a novel that describes real events, but hides behind the façade of fiction. This is sometimes done because the subject matter of the novel is controversial and includes the scandals of real people
pragmatics
The role of context in the interpretation of meaning
recursive approach to writing
Tell students they may need to revise their plans during the drafting stage of the writing process. flexible approach to writing
holistic scoring
Holistic scoring evaluates the overall effectiveness of student writing. It does not address the mechanics of writing specifically, but it does take this issue into account in forming an overall impression of a writing assignment. Holistic scoring does not focus exclusively on the ideas presented in a writing assignment. It addresses how well these ideas are presented.
recursive approach to writing
Most language arts teachers encourage students to take a recursive approach to the writing process (A). This approach recognizes that the writing process proceeds in stages, but that writers do not move in a straight line from one stage to the next. They often return to an earlier stage as their writing takes shape.
Aristotle's components of good drama
According to Aristotle, Choices Plot/Action, Time Frame, Setting are the three components that make up the most effective dramas
instructional strategies utilized before, during and after reading and teaches word identification skills
Directed Reading Activity (NOT used to encourage students to make predictions while reading. Thats directed-reading-thinking activity)
directed-reading-thinking activity
a strategy that encourages students to make predictions while reading
what is a graphic organizer used for in reading
show relationship between main concepts and terms in the text
Anticipation guide in reading lessons
lists statements related to the topic of the text that will be read
sylogism
a three part way of developng an arugment using a major premise, minor premise, and conclusion.

A syllogism (Greek: συλλογισμός - syllogismos - "conclusion," "inference") is a kind of logical argument that applies deductive reasoning to arrive at a conclusion based on two or more propositions that are asserted or assumed to be true.

In its earliest form, defined by Aristotle, from the combination of a general statement (the major premise) and a specific statement (the minor premise), a conclusion is deduced. For example, knowing that all men are mortal (major premise) and that Socrates is a man (minor premise), we may validly conclude that Socrates is mortal. Syllogistic arguments are usually represented in a three-line form (without sentence-terminating periods):

All men are mortal.

Socrates is a man.

Therefore, Socrates is mortal.

The word "therefore" is usually either omitted or replaced by the symbol "∴"
Process writing involves
Process writing is commonly defined as "learning how to write by writing." This approach focuses on writing itself rather than instruction in grammar.
charts types and useages
A bar chart (B) would be the most effective way to display the populations of five states for the purpose of comparison. A pie chart (A) is useful for displaying the relative size of parts of a whole. A line graph (C) is useful for displaying changes over time. A flow chart (D) is useful for displaying the steps in a process.
canto
one of the sections into which certain long poems are divided
ballad
short poem intended to be sung
straw man
A misrepresentation of an opponent's position is called a straw man. This device is considered a dishonest rhetorical approach. It is easy, but unfair, to attack an opponent's position if it is presented in a negative, distorted way.
anthropormorphism
An anthropomorphism is a type of personification. Both living and non-living objects take on human characteristics
internal rhyme
The phrase "April showers bring May flowers" is an example of internal rhyme. Internal rhyme occurs with a single line of poetry rather than from line to line
personification
Personification is a metaphor in which a thing or abstraction is represented as a person "fear pounded at the door"
style writing
The way an author uses phrases to formulate ideas
meaning of prefix "-dis" (3 things)
The prefix 'dis-' has a number of related functions, including indicating reversal ('dislodge', 'disconnect'), negation ('disbelief'), and removal/release (being or taking apart, as in 'displace' or 'disembowel'). It does not mean 'between'
Haiku
A haiku is a poem of seventeen syllables usually printed in three lines. The traditional haiku takes its theme from nature.
define the suffix "-ance"
the act of
suffix "-ment"
the result of being
verbal ajectives
adjective made from -ing form of a verb. "running shoes" (The ing form a noun is also a present participle. the dog is barking)
present participle verb vs present participle verbal
I am running vs the running shoes (verbal is ing as adj)
present participle phrase
Functions as adjectve. consists of a present participle ending in -ing and words that go with it, functions as an adjective. The man 'standing next to Jim' is my teacher. The snow 'falling outside the window' is beautiful. 'Opening the door,' the man walked outside.
gerund
-ing form of present tense verb but used as noun. Eating is such fun. We prefer their performing. His excessive working hinders life.
verbal
A verbal is a verb form which functions as a noun or an adjective. In English, there are three types of verbals:
Participles (past participles "ing" and present participles "ed" running shoes, baked bread). Adjective.
Gerunds "ing" noun Acting is fun
Infinitives
past tense vs past participle use
past tense used by itself. Part participle used with helping verbs. (I swam 3 miles. I have swum 3 miles)