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ECY 300 FINAL EXAM CHAPTERS 8-14
Terms in this set (105)
The vast majority of individuals with ADHD exhibit the combined type of the disorder
Initially, youngsters who displayed high levels of distractibility and hyperactivity were commonly referred to as exhibiting the Strauss syndrome.
ADHD is a recognized category under IDEA.
The research literature generally suggests that ADHD is more readily identified in males than females.
Hyperactive behavior is thought to be the result of abnormalities in the frontal cortex.
A child who has ADHD is much more likely to have parents who exhibit ADHD
Most children will not exhibit symptoms of ADHD until they start school.
It is virtually impossible for teacher to observe ADHD in their classes.
The accuracy of behavioral rating scales is largely dependent upon the raters' knowledge of the individual and their perception of his or her behavior
Most children with ADHD respond to a structured and predictable learning environment where rules and expectations are clearly stated
Which of the following is NOT one of the recognized subtypes of ADHD identified by the American Psychiatric Association?
ADHD PREDOMINATELY CONDUCT-DISORDER TYPE
ADHD is believed to affect approximately _____________million of the school-age population.
The precise cause of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is ___________.
Many children with ADHD are determined eligible and served under the category?
OTHER HEALTH IMPAIRMENTS
Disorganization and inattention, frequently implicated with ADHD, are believed to be associated with impairments in the ________________.
PREFRONTAL AND FRONTAL CORTEX
Which of the following is an element of behavioral inhibition?
WITHOLD A PLANNED RESPONSE, INTERRUPT A RESPONSE THAT HAS ALREADY BEEN INITIATED, PROTECT AN ONGOING ACTIVITY FROM COMPETEING OR DISTRACTING STIMULI
Typical strategies for assessing behavioral inhibition involve
DIRECT OBSERVATION, THE USE OF BEHAVIOR RATING SCALES, TRADITIONAL OBSERVATION INSTRUMENTS.
_____________ is the unique phenomenon in which individuals appear to be symptom free of the characteristics typically associated with ADHD; especially in novel or structured situations.
DOCTOR'S OFFICE EFFECT
Educational researchers believe that ___________ are generally more effective for individuals with ADHD than any one particular strategy
Teachers who are successful in working with children with ADHD typically incorporate which of the following strategies?
EVALUATE THE CHILD'S INDIVIDUAL NEEDS AND STRENGTHS, SELECT APPROPRIATE INSTRUCTIONAL PRACTICES, INTERGRATE PRACTICES WITHIN THE IEP IF THE STUDENT IS RECEIVING A SPECIAL EDUCATION
_________________ requires students to stop, think about what they are doing and compare their behavior to a criterion.
Many professionals believe that medication, particularly _________________ can play an important role in the treatment of ADHD
What medications are prescribed to treat the symptoms of ADHD?
RITALIN, DEXETRINE, ADDERALL
A condition sometimes observed in children using psychostimulants where their behaviors deteriorate as the medication begins to wear off is defined as:
A REBOUND EFFECT
It is generally believed that most students with ADHD receive services:
IN THE GENERAL EDUCATION CLASSROOM
The definition of emotional or behavioral disorders is universally accepted.
The definition of emotional disturbance includes schizophrenia
The current IDEA definition of emotional disturbance is controversial.
Social maladjustment behaviors are often equated with conduct disorders
The federal definition of emotional disturbance includes individuals with conduct disorders as part of the definition.
In general, there are multiple "tests" available to medical professionals to diagnosis emotional or behavioral disorders among children and youth.
One major reason given for the under identification of emotional or behavioral disordered students is the marked variability across states in identifying pupils with the disorder
A behavioral intervention plan is a rarely used assessment strategy to evaluate students with emotional and behavior disorders
Currently, a majority of students with emotional or behavioral disorders receive a special education and related services in environments that segregate them from their nondisabled peers for all or part of the school day.
Early antisocial behavior has been identified as an antecedent to such negative long-term outcomes as dropout, delinquency, violence, and drug abuse in adolescence and adulthood
What are the dimensions of behavior common to most definitions of emotional or behavioral disorders?
THE FREQUENCY IN WHICH THE BEHAVIOR OCCURS, THE INTENSITY OF THE BEHAVIOR, THE AGE-APPROPRIATNESS OF THE BEHAVIOR
Individuals with an emotional disturbance exhibit unique characteristics that:
EXSIT OVER A LONG PERIOD OF TIME, ARE TO A MARKED DEGREE, ADVERSLY EFFECT'S A CHILD'S EDUCATIONAL PERFORMANCE
Many professionals outside the field of special education incorrectly equate emotional or behavioral disorders with ___________________ .
The most widely used classification system for students with emotional or behavioral disorders is the:
An example of an externalizing behavioral problem is:
A TEMPER TANTRUM
An example of an internalizing behavioral problem is:
Initiatives that have recently strengthened the assessment process as it relates to students with emotional or behavioral disorders are:
PERSON-CENTERED PLANNING, STRENGTH BASED ASSESSMENT, FUNCTIONAL BEHAVIOR ASSESSMENT.
A__________________________ is a required component of the assessment process for students with disabilities who present behavioral challenges.
FUNCTIONAL BEHAVIOR ASSESSMENT
In developing a _______________, the IEP team must consider the use of positive behavioral interventions, strategies, and supports to address the problematic behaviors.
BEHAVIORAL INTEVENTION STRATEGY
__________________ is a school-wide approach designed to prevent problems and to intervene early to prevent behaviors from escalating
POSITIVE BEHAVIORAL SUPPORT
______________ has been shown to be a significant risk factor for the development of emotional or behavioral disorders.
This strategy focuses on teaching students the "thinking" skills necessary to avoid and resolve interpersonal conflicts.
INTERPERSONAL PROBLEM SOLVING
______________ programs are designed to teach not only problem-solving skills but skills related to negotiation and mediation
____________________ is defined as an integrated, community-based system that addresses the multiple domains of challenges encountered by children and youth with emotional or behavioral disorders and their families
SYSTEM OF CARE
Leo Kanner was the first person to identify the symptoms that characterize autism
Asperger syndrome is no longer classified as a discrete disability in the DSM 5.
Individuals with ASD rarely or never direct appropriate facial expressions to others.
Many professionals are now considering whether repetitive and restrictive behaviors are manifestations of co-existing psychiatric disorders
An overall assessment battery should include tests measuring intellectual ability as well as checklists assessing adaptive levels of functioning
The term autistic is best described as:
WITHDRAWAL FROM RELATIONSHIPS
Treatment strategies and interventions for individuals with ASD not supported by research are referred to as:
COMPLEMENTARY AND ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE (CAM)
Describing an individual's condition using a(n) _________________ allows for accurate presentation of the symptoms, conditions and severity of autism.
_________________ describes the 10% of the ASD population who exhibit unique "unlearned skills".
The____________ is a cognitive hypothesis that seeks to explain the inability of the individual with autism spectrum disorders to realize that other people have their own unique points of view about the world
THEORY OF MIND
The "gold standard" of diagnostic assessments includes __________.
THE AUTISTIC DIAGNOSTIC OBSERVATION SCHEDULE (ADOS 2) AND THE AUTISM DIAGNOSTIC INTERVIEWED—REVISED
The _______________ is a focused interaction with the individual with ASD, which is balanced by parental concerns as reflected in the ADI-R interview.
AUTISTIC DIAGNOSTIC OBSERVATION SCHEDULE (ADOS 2)
The ____________________ provide a reliable means for identifying school-age children with Asperger syndrome or milder forms of ASD.
CHILDHOOD ASPERGERS SYNDROME TEST
This successful approach to instruction involves the use of structured teaching and collaboration between caregiver and teachers
Severe communication and language disabilities are most likely to occur secondary to pervasive cognitive, neurological, or physical disabilities.
A communication disorder is defined as, "an impairment in the ability to receive, send, process, and comprehend concepts or verbal, nonverbal, and graphic symbols systems
Fluency disorders are difficulties with the rhythm and timing of speech
A phonological disorder is defined as abnormal organization of the phonologic system or a significant deficit in speech production or perception.
A central auditory processing disorder is a problem in the processing of sound, not attributed to hearing loss or intellectual capacity.
Severe communication and language disabilities are most likely to occur secondary to pervasive cognitive, neurological, or physical disabilities
A communication disorder is defined as, "an impairment in the ability to receive, send, process, and comprehend concepts or verbal, nonverbal, and graphic symbols systems."
Fluency disorders are difficulties with the rhythm and timing of speech
A phonological disorder is defined as abnormal organization of the phonologic system or a significant deficit in speech production or perception
A central auditory processing disorder is a problem in the processing of sound, not attributed to hearing loss or intellectual capacity
Cleft-lip and cleft palate are examples of a congenital abnormality
_______________ is a rule-based method of communication involving the comprehension and use of signs and symbols by which ideas are represented.
__________________ is the exchange of ideas, information, thoughts, and feelings.
The _________________________of language includes the sounds, rules, sequencing and stress
What element of a language includes the rules governing how words are formed from meaningful units called morphemes.
___________________________ is concerned with relationships between words, word meanings, and sentence meaning
The ________________of language contains rules for how to string words together to form phrases and sentences
This component of language is concerned with how effective an individual is in achieving the desired functions in social situations.
___________________________________ is a neurological phonologic disorder that results from impairment of the capacity to select, program, or execute the positioning of the speech muscles to produce speech sounds
APRAXIA OF SPEECH
This is defined as the ability to understand what is meant by spoken communication
____________________ involves production of language that is understood by and meaningful to others
Symbols, aids, strategies, and techniques used to enhance the communication process are commonly known as:
AUGEMENTIVE OR ALTERNATIVE COMMUNICATION
Visual acuityis the ability to visually perceive details
Legally blind is defined as a visual acuity of 20/200 or less in the better eye with correction or a visual field that is no greater than 20 degrees
Light enters the eye first through the clear _________and then through the circular opening in the _________ called the _________.
CORNEA, IRIS, PUPIL
The most common visual impairments affecting school-age children include:
CATARACTS, GLUCOMA, MYOPIA, OPTIC NERVE ATROPHY, ALBINISM, EYE INJURY, CORTICAL VISUAL IMPAIRMENT, RETINOPATH OF PREMATURITY
The training of the use of residual vision is known as
What is not a behavioral characteristic in visual function problems?
____________ refer to sensory channels and is based on the student's preferred method of reading and writing—print, Braille, or a combination of both.
Educational assessments must be modified for accessibility of the visually impaired either with ______________________or___________________________.
LARGER PRINT OR ORAL PRESENTATION
A student with a visual disorder may not be eligible for or need specialized services if:
THE DISORDER HAS LITTLE TO NO ADVERSE EFFECT ON THE STUDENT'S EDUCATIONAL PROGRESS
The term low incidence generally refers to a disability that occurs infrequently.
Students with "other health impairments" have alertness to the educational environment because of health problems that limit strength, vitality, or alertness.
Physical and health disabilities vary widely in reported prevalence figures, depending on the specific condition
Neuromotor impairments often result in complex motor problems that can affect loss of urinary control, and loss of proper alignment of the spine
The term low-incidence disabilities can include:
PHYSICAL DISABILITIES AND TRAMATIC BRAIN INJURY, HEALTH DIABILITIES AND DEAF-BLINDNESS, MULTIPLE DISABILITIES.
According to the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004 (PL 108-446), students with physical impairments may qualify for special education services under three possible categories:
ORTHOPEDIC IMPAIRMENTS, MULTIPLE DISABILITIES, AND TRAMATIC BRAIN INJURIES
Some of the most common etiologies resulting in physical and health disabilities are:
PREMATURITY, COMPLICATIONS OF PREGNANCY, AND CHROMOSOMAL DEFECTS
Variable categories affecting school performance for students with physical or health disability can be divided into three major areas these include:
FUNCTIONAL EFFECTS, PSYCHOSOCIAL AND NEGATIVE INTERACTION
Meeting the educational needs of students with physical or health disabilities requires several types of modifications which include:
PHYSICAL/HEALTH MONITORING, MODIFICATIONS, ADAPTATIONS, SPECIALIZED INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES, AND SPECIALIZED EXPANDED CURRICULUM AREAS
Placing students in inappropriate curriculums or teaching them less than they are capable of learning may be due to___________, defined as the overgeneralization of a disability into unrelated areas, often resulting in stereotyping
Through the help of ___________planning, legislation, technological advances, and options for support, more opportunities now exist for individuals with physical and health disabilities than ever before
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