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Terms in this set (367)
The general functions of muscle tissue include
production of body movement.
stabilization of body positions.
storage and movement of substances through the body.
a group of cells that have a common origin and function together to perform a specialized group of activities is called
________ released from the sarcoplasmic reticulum bind to troponin to trigger exposure of binding sites on actin and begin the contraction cycle. ______ supplies energy to detach the myosin head from actin.
Calcium ions; ATP
Which statement best describes the location of the cerebellum?
posterior to brainstem and inferior to cerebrum
Muscle fibers produce ATP using:
anaerobic cellular respiration.
aerobic cellular respiration.
Which subspecialty of anatomy studies the structures and function of cells?
A runner nearing the end of a marathon race would produce most ATP by:
Which statement is false in reference to the cranial meninges?
have three layers of the dura mater
Atoms and molecules are part of which level of organization in the human body?
In motor unit recruitment, the number of active motor units increases. t/f
Which property of muscle gives it the ability to stretch without damage?
This tissue covers body surfaces and lines hollow organs of the body such as the stomach and bladder.
The outermost layer of connective tissue surrounding a skeletal muscle is the
This type of tissue can function as fat storage, pad out and bind an organ together, wrap skeletal muscles, or transport substances.
Contraction of myofibrils within a muscle fiber begins when
calcium is released from the sarcoplasmic reticulum
Which structure is the pons?
After the fusion of myoblasts, the muscle fiber loses its ability to
go through mitosis
A structure made up of two or more types of tissues that performs a specific set of functions is at what level of organization?
Which correctly lists the sequence of structures that action potentials must move through to excite skeletal muscle contraction?
axon of neuron, sarcolemma, T tubules
Of the four basic tissue types, which one is able to generate electrical signals that can trigger muscles contractions or glandular secretions?
. Skeletal muscle contraction is triggered to begin when calcium is released from
terminal cisterns of sarcoplasmic reticulum
Which statement about the cerebellum is true?
its prime function is to 'fine tune' motor function
What energizes the myosin head?
ATP hydrolysis reaction
Which system of the body is responsible for elimination of wastes and regulating the volume and composition of the blood, including production of red blood cells?
Which ATP production would be sufficient to run in place for one minute?
anaerobic cellular respiration
Which type of cell junction would you expect to find anchoring the cells of the epidermis to each other. This type of junction gives the skin its ability to endure stretching and other mechanical stresses without tearing.
Which of the following is true of the thalamus?
it is a component of the diencephalon
Which term describes a somatic motor neuron and all the skeletal muscle fibers it stimulates?
A brief contraction of all muscle fibers in a motor unit in response to a single action potential moving down the somatic motor neuron is known as
The development of specialized cells from unspecialized stem cells is a description of which of the following basic life processes?
On the diagram, what structure is composed of the three connective tissue layers that extend past the muscle?
Cells are able to transport materials from one region of the cell to another just as the body is able to transport substances to different locations, or skeletal muscles (working with your skeleton) can transport you from the sofa to the refrigerator. What basic life process is illustrated by this description?
In the diagram, where would you find stored Ca2+?
This type of junction contains tiny fluid-filled tunnels called connexons which allow the movement of ions and small molecules between cells. It is found between muscles cells of the heart and in organs with smooth muscle tissue such as the gastrointestinal tract.
Which portion of this myogram shows a single twitch of the muscle?
Identify the cerebral cortex in this illustration.
All of the muscle fibers within the muscle are fully contracted and are in sustained contraction with no individual twitches detected due to high frequency of stimulation.
If you wanted to design a tissue that restricted the movement of water and other molecules between adjacent cells, which type of junction would you use to connect the cells?
Mitochondrial activity in skeletal muscle cells are usually efficient, but can have limited ATP production if
there is limited O2 availability
Which of the following is a function of the basal nuclei?
control subconscious contraction of skeletal muscles
influence attention, memory and planning
help initiate and terminate movements
assist in regulating emotional behaviors
Cross bridges are formed during muscle contraction when _____ binds to _____.
The homeostasis of the body is controlled through a series of steps called a feedback system or feedback loop. One component of such systems is a control center. Which of the following organs would frequently serve as the control center for a feedback system (remember, the control center evaluates the disruption to homeostasis, and it also triggers a response)?
In a neuromuscular junction, the effect of acetylcholine (ACh) binding to receptors on the motor end plate lasts only briefly due to
rapid destruction of ACh in the synaptic cleft by acetylcholinesterase.
This tissue has an extensive extracellular matrix, usually has many blood vessels, and provides oxygen and nutrients to overlying tissues
Which component of the brain is referred to as the "emotional brain" as it plays primary role in a wide range of emotions?
Myasthenia Gravis is an autoimmune disorder that targets the ACh receptors at the NMJ and ultimately reduces the number of available receptors. Predict what happens if you treat the patient with a drug that inhibits the activity of acetylcholinesterase?
The drug will increase contraction.
Which type of muscle tissue is involuntary (can't be consciously controlled)?
smooth muscle and cardiac muscle
Study the diagram. What is the role of the stretch-sensitive nerve cells in the cervix?
They act as the receptors.
Skeletal muscle is covered, surrounded and protected by various layers of connective tissue. Which layer of connective tissue would surround a bundle of muscle fibers (muscle cells)?
Which type of exocrine gland are sebaceous (oil) glands?
Muscular tissue has several important properties, such as electrical excitability. Another property of muscular tissue is that it is able to stretch, and return to its original size and shape. Which property of muscular tissue is this?
Subtle anatomical differences between each hemisphere in the brain is called:
The site where a somatic motor neuron releases acetylcholine to stimulate a skeletal muscle fiber is called the
Regulation of blood glucose in the body is an example of homeostasis.
Which of the following molecules found in skeletal muscle cells binds oxygen that can later be used during aerobic metabolism to help generate ATP?
All of the following would be methods of studying anatomy except:
using devices that measure heart rate and respiration
During the contraction cycle, ATP attaches to
Which statement is true regarding cranial nerves?
they are part of the peripheral nervous system
Which of the following is directly responsible for transmitting an action potential from a motor neuron to a skeletal muscle fiber?
All connective tissues consist of two basic elements: cells and __________.
[Refer to the diagram to help you with this question.] When a person is hooked up to a machine that will record myograms, a record of their muscle activity can be produced (depending on the frequency and strength of the stimuli that generate an action potential in their muscle tissue). If the person receives a series of multiple stimuli in a short period of time, the wave of muscle activity that will be recorded will show a sustained contraction with no period of relaxation in between the periods when they receive the stimuli. The myograms has recorded:
fused (complete) tentanus
Which type of muscle tissue would have these characteristics: branched cells, usually has one nucleus, has striations (a striped appearance)?
The brain requires an almost continuous supply of
oxygen and glucose
Which of the structures in the figure is the contractile organelle that contains the thick and thin filaments? (picture problem)
Which protein does Calcium bind to?
Homeostasis is the condition in which the body maintains:
a relatively stable internal environment within limits.
Energy can be transferred in the muscle cell through the conversion of ATP into ADP. t/f
Which type of muscle tissue is under the voluntary control of our nervous sytem. We can consciously control the movement of this type of muscle tissue
Creatine phosphate reserves are restored via phosphorylation by ATP during rest. t/f
High CSF pressure can result in a condition known as
Through aerobic respiration in the mitochondria, one glucose molecule can create
30 or more ATP
Place the following in correct sequence from the simplest to the most complex:
Of the basic tissue types, which types have excitable cells?
muscle and nervous tissues
The autonomic nervous system is part of the
What is the function(s) of the nervous system?
sending a response to muscles or glands
Which is NOT true about the reticular formation?
almost all ascending information synapses in it
Carefully study the diagram below. Which statement best describes the direction of signal transmission?
signals go only from the presynaptic neuron to postsynaptic neuron
The lowest level that exhibits the characteristics of life is
If a neurotransmitter attaches to a ligand-gated channel and creates a potential that causes the inside of the excitable cell membrane to become less negative, and this potential travels only a short distance before dying out, it is considered to be a(n)...
depolarizing graded potential
This system produces body movements, stabilizes body positions and generates heat.
Functions of the cerebellum include
smooth and coordinate skilled muscle activity
detect problems in carrying out voluntary muscle activity and correct them
regulation of balance and posture
Which is NOT true about the peripheral nervous system?
it is only involved with unconscious (involuntary) activities
The somatic nervous system
provides motor signals and conscious control to skeletal muscles.
Mast cells are found near blood vessels in connective tissue and release histamine to promote inflammation as a response to injury or infection.
Typically graded potentials occur in the...
dendrites and cell body
The cells of the nervous system which are able to generate nerve impulses (action potentials) are called neuroglia.
Multiple sclerosis involves a progressive destruction of the neuron's ___.
relays sensory information to correct regions of the cerebral hemispheres
relays motor information from the cerebellum and basal nuclei (basal ganglia) to the cerebrum
plays a role in consciousness
consists of a pair of oval masses
The ________is the outermost nucleated cytoplasmic layer of a Schwann cell and which encloses the myelin sheath.
The two systems most responsible for maintaining homeostasis are the
Endocrine and nervous systems
Voltage-gated channels participate in the generation and conduction of _____ in the axons of all types of neurons.
Which property of epithelium enables it to form coverings and linings of the body?
epithelial cells are closely packed and the cells are tightly adhered to one another
What is the typical resting membrane potential of a neuron?
plays a major role in regulating homeostasis, visceral activity and temperature
regulates certain emotions like rage, sexual arousal, aggression, pain and pleasure
regulates eating and drinking behavior
During the depolarizing phase of an action potential, the inflow of Na+ changes the membrane potential from −55 mV to _____.
A particular stimulus causes an increase in the levels of CO2 in the blood. A feedback mechanism that increases respiration rate to exhale more CO2 would be
In ______ conduction, the impulse jumps from Node of Ranvier to Node of Ranvier.
Which of the connective tissue fibers imparts the greatest strength?
Bruising of the brain is called a(n) ___.
Movement of ions through an open channel is due to
Some voltage-gated channels do not allow ions to pass through when their activation gate is open because
there is a second gate, an inactivation gate, that closes to block the channel.
A positive feedback mechanism is defined as
a feedback mechanism that reinforces the change in the controlled condition
When the inside of the membrane becomes less negative, the membrane potential is said to be
Smooth muscle derives its name from the lack of striations in the cell.
When the threshold of voltage-gated channels is reached and voltage-gated channels open, the resulting change in membrane potential is known as a(n)
Most cerebrospinal fluid is produced by _______ located in the walls of the ventricles of the brain.
Resting membrane potential is maintained by
leak channels and sodium-Potassium pumps.
In order to improve a patient's _______, a respiratory therapist would be interested in studying the functions of the individual's ___________.
breathing; air passageways and lungs
At what level(s) of organization would an exercise physiologist study the human body?
If I can block neurotransmitters attaching to chemically-gated sodium channels, what will be the result?
An action potential will not be produced
The synapse consists of
presynaptic and post synaptic cell membranes separated by a synaptic cleft.
Lie in the wall of the third ventricle
Lack a blood brain barrier
Coordinate homeostatic activities
What ion must flow into the presynaptic cell in order for it to release neurotransmitter?
Most epithelial and connective tissues in the body will repair if they receive proper nutrition and have a blood source.
How does a neurotransmitter signal the post-synaptic cell to respond?
It binds to receptors on the post synaptic cell membrane.
Which of the following is mismatched?
Effector - Analyzes receptor output to determine if a controlled condition is correctly maintained
Which types of cell junctions prevent the contents of organs from leaking into surrounding tissues?
Once neurotransmitters are released, they do not remain in the synapse. What happens to them?
Some are degraded by enzymes while some are transported back into the presynaptic cell.
The motor portion of the autonomic nervous system can be divided into
sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions.
Which of the following brain structures consists of the medulla oblongata, pons and midbrain?
During the resting state of a voltage-gated Na+ channel, 1. the inactivation gate is open. 2. the activation gate is closed. 3. the channel is permeable to Na+.
both 1 and 2 are true.
Which of the following characteristics are shared by all epithelial cells?
Cells are arranged in continuous sheets, There is little space between plasma membranes, All cells have a free surface.
These statements describe what part of an action potential?
• Sodium activation gates are closed
• Sodium inactivation gates are open
• Potassium gates are open
• Repolarization is occurring
Relative refractory period
Which of the following brain structures consists of the thalamus, hypothalamus and epithalamus?
Plasticity means the ability to
change based on experience.
Which describes the study of the functions of body structures?
Which type of epithelium makes up the epidermis?
keratinized stratified squamous
In this diagram, which structure electrically insulates the axon of a neuron to increase the speed of nerve impulse conduction?
__________ open and close in response to physical deformation of receptors.
Mechanically gated channels
Which of the following describes a function of cerebrospinal fluid?
1. Maintain optimum ionic environment
2. Maintain pH homeostasis
3. Provide circulation for exchange of nutrients/wastes
4. Serve as a shock absorbing fluid system of spinal cord
5. Provide buoyancy of the brain
1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Once the membrane potential reaches a threshold voltage, hundreds of voltage-gated ----- channels in that region of the membrane to open briefly. ------ ions flood into the cell, completely ---- the membrane.
Hormonal or electrical signals are sent from the control center to the
As the action potential nears its peak, the voltage-gated ----- channels close, and voltage-gated ------ channels open, allowing cations to flow out of the cell to restore the resting membrane potential.
About 90% of the cells of the epidermis are of which type?
During an action potential's ___________, a second stimulus will not produce a second action potential (no matter how strong that stimulus is). This event corresponds to the period when the __________ remain open and the sodium inactivation gates have not reopened.
absolute refractory period; voltage-gated potassium channels
An electroencephalogram (EEG) measures brain waves primarily generated by
neurons in the cerebral cortex.
During an action potential's ___________, a second stimulus can be produced only if the stimulus is greater than the threshold stimulus. This event corresponds to the period when the __________ remain open and sodium inactivation gates have reopened.
relative refractory period; potassium voltage-gated channels
If blood concentrations of thyroid hormones increase above a certain level, Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) neurons in the hypothalamus are inhibited and stop secreting TRH. This is an example of
When an impulse arrives at the synaptic end bulb, the membrane becomes more permeable to -----. . The ion movement into the synaptic end bulbs causes ----- of ----- into the synaptic cleft.
Which subspecialty of physiology deals with the effects of hormones control of reproduction?
Eating disorders may lead to extreme thirst and temperature variations. These symptoms may describe a dysfunction in the
The pigment-producing cells of the epidermis are located in which layer?
Which of the following is not a correct statement about melanin?
melanin is necessary for the production of vitamin D by the skin
Which of the following does not describe the autonomic nervous system?
the effectors are primarily skeletal muscles
If one was reviewing the pattern of tissue changes associated with disease development, they would be studying
Which layer has stem cells that undergo cell division to continually produce new keratinocytes?
The sympathetic division of the ANS is called the thoracolumbar division because:
its preganglionic neurons' cell bodies are located in the gray matter of the thoracic and lumbar segments of the spinal cord
If a doctor listens to a gurgling noise within the gastrointestinal tract, they are performing
Which epidermal layer marks the transition between metabolically active cells of lower layers and the dead layers of keratinocytes of the upper layers.
Which of the following neurotransmitters does not bind to adrenergic receptors?
_____ occurs when an embryonic stem cell becomes a neuron.
Hydrochloric acid and pepsin are enzymes secreted by cells in your stomach to digest proteins. The presence of partially digested protein in the stomach triggers the secretion of more HCl and pepsin. Thus, once digestion begins, it becomes a self-accelerating process. This is an example of
An agonist is:
a substance that activates a receptor producing the same effect as a neurotransmitter
This skin layer is only present in places subjected to high levels of mechanical wear-and-tear, and provide an additional protective layer where it occurs, such as in the soles of the feet, palms, and fingertips.
The cytoplasm of a cell is made up of which of the following?
the cytosol and organelles
The definition of autonomic tone is:
the balance between sympathetic and parasympathetic activity
Langerhans cells are part of the skin's immune defenses and activate other immune cells when the skin is invaded by microbes. Which layer of the epidermis contains Langerhans cells?
Which of the following effects does not occur during the fight-or-flight response?
the pupils constrict
In what part of a cell would you find most of a cell's genetic material?
Along with sweating, which other responses by skin assists with thermoregulation?
blood vessels near the skin can dilate, increasing blood flow and heat loss
Which feature(s) of the skin protect(s) us against microbes such as bacteria?
Langerhans cells can alert the immune system should microbes invade, Sweat has an acidic pH which suppresses microbial growth, sebum contains compounds which kill bacteria, The many layers of keratinized cells form a barrier against microbes
Which would be an example of a condition in the body not controlled by autonomic reflexes?
tracking a bird flying by
Which membrane proteins are involved with the transport of molecules that otherwise would be unable to enter the cell?
When an epidermal wound begins the healing process, basal cells migrate away from the basement membrane, enlarge, and migrate to fill in the wounded area. As these cells migrate from different sides of the wound, and reach each other, they stop migrating. This process is called __________.
The sympathetic division will
increase heart rate.
Which of the labeled structures in the image are examples of integral, transmembrane proteins?
structures D and E
Sodium-potassium pumps are examples of what type of cellular transport?
primary active transport
Acetylcholine is released
1. at the neuromuscular junctions
2. within sympathetic ganglia
3. within parasympathetic ganglia
1, 2 and 3 are correct
Differences in skin pigmentation are due to the number of melanocytes in the basal layer of the skin. People with darker skin have many more melanocytes than people with paler skin.
Acetylcholine binds to
1. nicotinic receptors
2. muscarinic receptors
3. alpha receptors
1 and 2 are correct
What type of endocytosis allows cells to "drink" (take up tiny droplets of extracellular fluid)?
In addition to a thicker stratum corneum and the presence of a stratum lucidum, the thick skin of the palms and fingertips of the hands and of the soles of the feet have a denser array of sense receptors than thinner skin found elsewhere on the body, and also is hairless.
In deep wound healing, an injury has penetrated through to the dermis or even the hypodermis (subcutaneous layer). In this type of wound, the healing process will leave a scar and could involve a loss of some functionality of the area of the wound.
Release of acetylcholine by postganglionic cells will
Which of the following organelles plays an important role in phagocytosis (a type of endocytosis), contains a variety of digestive enzymes, and has transport pumps that maintain an acidic pH inside the organelle?
Wounds that only damage the epidermis won't bleed because the epidermis is avascular.
Alpha and beta adrenergic receptors
1. are sensitive to epinephrine and norepinephrine
2. have several subclasses
3. mediate response to the sympathetic nervous system
1, 2 and 3 are correct
The nucleus of a cell contains one or more of these structures that are the site of production of ribosomes.
The alternate name for the stratum basale, the stratum __________, suggests its role in forming new cells.
are found in all autonomic ganglia
During the translation phase of protein synthesis, where would you find an anticodon?
on the strand of tRNA
In somatic cell division, a cell undergoes a nuclear division called ____, and a division of its cytoplasm called _____.
mitosis / cytokinesis
Which of the following functions of the skin explains the skin's pink hue?
What part of the nervous system is the main control and integrative center of the autonomic nervous system?
The cell bodies of sympathetic preganglionic neurons are located in the
In the below image, which line is pointing to the chromatids?
Examination of the nail beds and gums of the mouth are diagnostic tools for anemia in dark skinned individuals.
Which is the correct sequence of phases for deep wound healing?
inflammation, migration, proliferation, maturation
In the muscular system, which portion of the nervous system stimulates contraction of skeletal muscles for movement?
somatic nervous system
Sister chromatids of a pair of homologous chromosomes form tetrads, and crossing-over (exchange of genetic information between regions of non-sister chromatids in the tetrad) occurs during which phase?
meiotic prophase I
Which might be due to a decrease in the amount of oxygen in the blood?
Which of the following statements is/are incorrect?
a) The autonomic nervous system operates under conscious control.
c) Autonomic pathways consist of a single axon.
Gases such as oxygen and carbon dioxide can pass through a plasma membrane by simple diffusion, because they are uncharged, nonpolar molecules.
As newly formed cells of the stratum basale are pushed to the surface, they accumulate keratin and undergo apoptosis. This process is referred to as _______.
Cholinergic neurons release ____________ while adrenergic release _______________.
In the passive processes of simple diffusion and osmosis, substances and water move down their concentration gradients, moving from areas of higher concentrations to areas of lower concentrations.
The tail on a sperm cell is the only example of a flagellum in the human body.
Stimulation of neurons in the skin gives rise to tactile sensations, thermal sensations, and pain.
The balance between sympathetic and parasympathetic activity is referred to as _____________.
In a skin infection, which cell will take up and process microbial antigens?
Intraepidermal macrophages (Langerhans cells)
During a hike in the woods, Susan encountered a grizzly bear. Which of the following would probably not occur?
b) Salivation would increase.
d) Heart rate would decrease.
The majority of the plasma membrane is made from phospholipids that have hydrophobic heads and hydrophilic tails.
Tactile epithelial cells are located in the
Autonomic reflexes help to keep which of the following in balance?
Defecation and urination
A red blood cell placed in a solution of 5% NaCl would lose water. This is because the solution is _______________ to the cell:
Dense irregular connective tissue will be found in the
Autonomic motor neurons regulate visceral activities by
1. increasing activities in effector tissue.
2. decreasing activities in effector tissue.
3. allowing bidirectional conduction across synapses.
1 and 2
A low-density lipoprotein is transported into the cell through a clathrin coated receptor and is degraded. This type of endocytosis is
receptor mediated endocytosis
What types of RNA are made from the DNA template?
A postganglionic neuron in the ANS
releases neurotransmitter that binds to the effector cell.
Albinism is the inherited inability to produce
In which region of a long bone, such as the humerus, would you find the epiphyseal plate (growth plate)?
Place the events in order of sympathetic motor pathway.
1. postganglionic neuron depolarizes
2. acetylcholine binds to sweat gland's muscarinic receptor
3. postganglionic neuron releases acetylcholine
4. neuron exits lumbar segment of spinal cord
5. acetylcholine binds to nicotinic receptor
6. neuron releases acetylcholine
4, 6, 5, 1, 3, 2
During transcription, AAA in DNA would be paired with the mRNA codon
Which of the following tissues could be found on or within a bone, such as the humerus?
adipose tissue, nervous tissue, cartilage, osseous tissue
The two main neurotransmitters of the autonomic nervous system are
norepinephrine and acetylcholine
Which enzyme catalyzes the formation of mRNA?
Which two minerals are stored in major quantities in bone tissue?
calcium and phosphorus
Acetylcholine is always released by _____ postganglionic neurons and is removed from the synaptic cleft at a _____ rate than norepinephrine.
takes place during S interphase of the cell cycle
Match the letter from the figure with the following organelle name or description: Microvilli.
Cholinergic receptors include
nicotinic and muscarinic receptors
Which represents the correct sequence of development of bone cells?
osteoprogenitor cells → osteoblasts → osteocytes
Which is formed from the fusion of as many as 50 monocytes (a type of white blood cell)?
Autonomic tone is regulated by the
Match the letter from the figure with the following organelle name or description: Site of aerobic cellular respiration.
Once osteoblasts have surrounded themselves with the extracellular matrix of bone tissue, they remain inside little chambers called __________ where they carry on the metabolic functions that maintain bone tissue. At this point, the cells are called osteocytes.
Jennifer is at a stoplight and begins to accelerate into traffic when the light turns green. She stops suddenly as a truck runs the red light and is only a few inches away from her front bumper. Which effect would you NOT expect to see in Jennifer's body?
Increased secretion of digestive juices
The lipid bilayer forms because the lipids are __________.
Compact bone is composed of units called osteons. In contrast, spongy bone is composed of _____.
_____ is the neurotransmitter used by the pathway shown in the diagram and it causes ____.
Plasma membranes allow some substances to pass through more readily than others. This property is referred to as _______.
The process of intramembranous ossification generates bone within a pre-existing template composed of mesenchymal tissue. In contrast, endochondral ossification generates bone within a pre-existing template composed of _____.
Which neurotransmitter is released at the autonomic ganglion by the preganglionic neuron?
What factors can increase the rate of diffusion?
Steepness of the concentration gradient
Increase in temperature
Surface area of the membrane
Which one of these statements is incorrect?
A cell placed in a hypotonic solution would undergo crenation.
In a parasympathetic division motor pathway, which neurotransmitter is released at the effector?
Most of the bones of the skull are formed by this process.
By which process, as an individual grows to adulthood, is the thickness (diameter) of bone increased?
Cholinergic neurons release _____ and adrenergic neurons release _____.
The key difference between active and passive processes is that active processes require energy.
Which of the following regions of bone would not undergo bone remodeling as frequently as the other regions?
Identify the structure labeled 2 in the diagram.
parasympathetic preganglionic neuron
Which of the following chemicals would be present in cytosol?
Bone tissue stores 99% of the body's calcium. Calcium plays important roles beyond the mineralization of bones. The exchange of calcium between bone and body fluids (especially the blood) is regulated by several hormones. Which of the following is the most important hormone regulating calcium exchange?
parathyroid hormone (PTH)
Identify the structure labeled 3 in the diagram.
parasympathetic postganglionic neuron.
Haploid cells differ from diploid cells in that haploid cells have _____ the number of chromosomes as diploid cells.
This type of membrane protein enables cells to catalyze specific chemical reactions at the inner or outer surface of their plasma membrane.
Which of the following statements describes a common response of an autonomic effector during the "fight-or-flight" response?
The pupils of the eyes dilate.
An elderly woman trips and falls. She puts out her hand to try to stop her fall, and ends up with a fracture of the lower arm. An x-ray shows that at the break, many pieces of bone have a splintered and fragmented appearance. Which type of fracture does this woman have?
Which is the proper sequence of steps in the healing of a fracture (the steps are listed below but are not in the correct sequence of events):
1 osteoblasts form trabecular bone that joins together the fractured ends of the bone and bony callus replaces fibrocartilage callus
2 bone remodeling occurs and compact bone replaces the spongy bone around the periphery of the fracture site
3 fibroblasts and chondrocytes from the periosteum form the fibrocartilage callus
4 a fracture hematoma forms and bone cells in the region of the fracture die
5 phagocytes and osteoclasts begin to remove the dead cells and damaged tissue around the hematoma
4, 5, 3, 1, 2
Which neuron is most likely to be adrenergic?
Which of the following types of membrane proteins function by recognizing and binding to hormones and neurotransmitters?
Gravity and the pull of muscles against bone are the main mechanical stresses experienced by bone. Stress promotes deposition of mineral salts, collagen, and the strengthening of bone in stressed areas. Which of the following individuals would have a lower rate of bone deposition and would therefore be at greater risk for bone loss through bone resorption?
a secretary who works at a desk job and does not do any regular weight-bearing exercise
Beta blockers are used to
prevent a rise in heart rate.
Which of the following does NOT influence the rate of diffusion of a chemical across a plasma membrane?
amount of ATP available
With aging, bones can become more brittle. This brittleness is due to which factor?
with aging, there is a reduction in collagen synthesis by osteoblasts, which means a loss of tensile strength
The Sympathetic division is associated with excitement or embarrassment.
In this type of transport process, a solute (e.g. glucose) binds to a specific carrier protein on one side of the membrane. This binding induces a conformational change in the carrier protein that results in the solute moving down its concentration gradient to the other side of the membrane.
Bone can be classified as a connective tissue because it contains an extracellular matrix that surrounds widely spaced cells.
The primary difference between an autonomic reflex arc and a somatic reflex arc is that the former has two motor neurons connecting the CNS to an effector.
If the solute concentration is greater inside of the cell than outside the cell, water will move by osmosis
into the cell.
In this transport process, the energy from hydrolysis of ATP is used to drive substances across the membrane against their own concentration gradients.
primary active transport
The autonomic nervous system operates by reflex arcs that include sensory neurons, integrating centers that are mainly in the hypothalamus and brain stem, and motor neurons.
During a needle biopsy of a person's bone marrow, maybe to test for the presence of cancer, pain is felt when the needle passes through the periosteum because it is richly supplied with nerves.
During the process of bone formation in a fetus, a primary ossification center develops in the epiphysis of a cartilage model of a long bone.
The parasympathetic NS is also called the craniosacral division because it includes four cranial nerves and spinal nerves from S2-S4.
What is the major function of histones?
help organize coiling and folding of the DNA
As long bones form in the fetus, the formation of the medullary cavity occurs because of the actions of osteoblast cells.
The parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system is called an energy conservation/restoration system because it supports body functions that conserve and restore energy during periods of rest and recovery.
During this phase of cell division, organelles duplicate and centrosome replication begins.
Bone remodeling, especially bone resorption, plays a role in the maintenance of proper levels of calcium in the blood.
In the autonomic nervous system, the control of motor output is involuntary.
During this phase of cell division, the centromeres split leading to separation and subsequent migration of the two members of a chromatid pair to opposite poles of the cells. The cleavage furrow also begins to develop during this phase.
A greenstick fracture would only be seen in an elderly person with more fragile bones.
An agonist binds and blocks a receptor while an antagonist binds and activates the receptor.
During emotional stress, the sympathetic dominates the parasympathetic system.
Which is not a function of the skeletal system?
Which of the following factors affect bone remodeling and growth?
minerals, vitamins, hormones
Calcitonin inhibits activity of osteoclasts, speeds blood calcium uptake by bone, and accelerates calcium deposition into bones.
Hematopoiesis takes place in the ________ of some adult bones.
Red bone marrow
Which of the following is incorrectly matched?
Articular cartilage - composed of elastic cartilage to allow flexibility
_______ contribute(s) to the hardness of bone while ________ give(s) it flexibility.
Mineral salts; collagen and other organics
Which of the following is mismatched?
Osteoclasts -are derived from osteoblasts and break down bone tissue
Which of the following is mismatched?
Zone of hypertrophic cartilage - consists of rapidly dividing immature chondrocytes
Ikea is a ten year old child raised on the planet Beneckea which has half the gravity of earth. Her parents have decided to move their family back to earth. Will Ikea need to increase or decrease her bone mass to live comfortably on earth?
The ______ is composed of hyaline cartilage and reduces friction between bones involved in a joint.
The cells active in fracture repair during the production of the hard (spongy bone) callus.
Cells active when cartilage needs to be removed so new bone can be produced.
How are osteons in compact bone tissue aligned? How does the osteon arrangement affect bone strength?
parallel to the length of the diaphysis; the shaft resists bending even when stresses are applied in certain directions.
List the order of the zones in an epiphyseal plate from the diaphyseal region to the distal epiphysis.
A: Zone of calcified cartilage
B: Zone of hypertrophic cartilage
C: Zone of proliferating cartilage
D: Zone of resting cartilage
Bone mass reduction is promoted by which hormone?
The awareness of differences in the external or internal environment is defined as:
Which of the following would not be considered to be a sensory modality?
Which of the following somatic sensations has an encapsulated nerve ending as its sensory receptor?
Which of the following is true when comparing types of pain sensations?
C fibers, unmyelinated, chronic pain
The best example of referred pain is:
pain felt into the left arm during a heart attack
The anatomical structure responsible for monitoring the change in length of a muscle is called:
Which sensation is not carried by the posterior column-medial lemniscus (PCML) pathway?
The body parts represented by the largest area on the somatosensory map are the:
Memory is best defined as:
the persistence of learning through the storage and retrieval of information
There are three orders of sensory neurons between the skin and the area of the cerebral cortex that interprets the sensation. Which order crosses from one side of the body to allow the opposite side of the brain to detect the sensation?
The human-type representation resting on the postcentral gyrus indicates
1. the location of the brain tissue that processes incoming sensory information from particular body areas.
2. the relative number of cortical neurons devoted to muscle control of a particular body area.
3. the relative number of touch receptors in a particular body area.
1 and 3 are correct
The indicated pathways carry impulses of
3. conscious proprioception.
1, 2 and 3 are correct.
The common location deep in the brain where sensory pathways of secondary neurons synapse with tertiary neurons to transfer information to various areas of the primary somatosensory cerebral cortex is the
Calling a receptor a mechanoreceptor is classifying that receptor by
1. type of stimulus detected
The human-type figure resting on the precentral gyrus tells us that
more cortical neurons are specialized for hand movement than for foot movement
control of facial muscles requires a large number of cortical neurons
relatively little cortical material is devoted to controlling the muscles of the trunk
This figure shows that the
1. the cerebellum receives information about conscious intention for movement
2. the cerebellum receives information about current body position and action
3. the cerebellum does not communicate directly with the skeletal muscles
1 2 3 are correct
Receptors that detect blood pressure are
Which of the following pathways transmit sensory information from the face and nasal passages
When looking at a map of both the sensory and motor involvement of the cerebral cortex, we can see that over half of the primary somatosensory area and primary motor area are concerned with the
face and hands
Encapsulated sensory receptors include:
receptors for pressure, vibration and some touch.
Fast pain differs from slow pain in that in fast pain:
Nerve impulses are propagated along medium diameter type A fibers.
Muscle spindles and tendon organs...
Give information about the degree of contraction of a muscle.
Monitor the amount of tension on tendons
Monitor the positions of joints
Which of the following statements is correct?
The trigeminothalamic pathway carries impulses for most somatic sensations from the face, nasal cavity, oral cavity and teeth to the cerebral cortex.
How many sensory modalities can a single sensory neuron have?
______ are sensory receptors located in blood vessels and visceral organs, whose signals are not usually consciously perceived.
______ would detect irritation on the skin if you didn't wear gloves while cleaning with bleach.
Which proprioceptors are found in the articular capsules of synovial joints?
The postcentral gyri of the parietal lobes of the cerebral cortex
receives primary somatic sensory information
______ convey impulses from lamellated corpuscles and synapse with another neuron in the posterior gray horn of the spinal cord.
first order neurons
Which of the neurons in the diagram would most likely pick up an itch sensation?
A disorder that affects the basal nuclei would have what affect?
shaking of hands
When fluids are pulled into capillaries, what type of receptor will detect the resulting pressure?
Which condition is a state of unconsciousness in which a person's responses to stimuli are reduced or absent?
The integration centers for sensations that are consciously perceived (like vision, smell, taste, and pain) are found in the
You have a pillow in one hand and are about to pick up your Anatomy and Physiology textbook. What receptor will help determine the muscular effort needed for these two objects?
Which of the following are responsible for producing new olfactory receptors?
Taste buds consist of supporting cells, gustatory receptor cells, and basal cells.
Which layer of the retina is not directly involved with processing visual data?
b pigmented layer
The cis to trans conversion of retinal when photopigments respond to light is called:
Which is the correct order of events of sound transmission through the ear?
1. sound waves strike the eardrum
2. the ear ossicles vibrate
3. hair cells of the organ of Corti vibrate
4. the perilymph in the cochlea moves5. sound waves enter the external auditory canal
5, 1, 2, 4, 3
Which structure within the ampulla contains hair cells that are involved in dynamic equilibrium?
use olfactory hairs to transduce chemical signals from odorants.
allow color vision
What structure is indicated in the diagram?
What is the name of the structure labeled with the arrow?
The hair cells responsible for hearing are located on the ________; their hair bundles are embedded in the ________
basilar membrane; tectorial membrane
Which has a receptor that is a first order neuron?
Select the correct pathway of sound waves from the auricle to the spiral organ of Corti?
external auditory canal → tympanic membrane → maleus → incus → stapes → oval window → perilymph
Axons of which cells make up the optic nerve?
Which of the following is NOT true about rods?
they are most numerous in the central fovea
Which of the following is not a primary taste sensation?
Axons of ganglion cells in the nasal half of each retina extend to the thalamus on opposite side.
The point of greatest visual acuity is the
The blind spot is the area where
the optic nerve exits the eye
Olfactory epithelium is found
only in the superior portion of the nasal cavity
_____ bind the odorants and begin signal transduction.
______ receptors are primarily used for detecting light rays under bright light conditions.
Which is the transparent layer on the anterior of the eyeball through which the iris can be observed?
The ______ regulates the amount of light entering the eyeball through the pupil.
The first step in the visual transduction process that occurs in the retina is
absorption of light by photopigments.
What ear structure vibrates back and forth when sound waves strike?
Dynamic equilibrium is maintained by the
In the retina diagram, where is the bipolar cell layer?
An uncorrected hyperopic eye is seen in which diagram?
Which labeled step(s) represents cis-retinal binding to opsin, regenerating a photopigment that is functional?
Opsin looks colorless when trans-retinal is separated from opsin. This is termed
Which structure in this diagram produces the material that dissolves odorants so transduction can occur?
Tastants make contact with which portion in the diagram?
Which statement accurately describes the changes in the membrane potential of a photoreceptor cell when light rays strike its photopigments?
The photoreceptor cell undergoes hyperpolarization.
Otoliths are located in the
macula of the saccule
Select the sequence of events for the olfactory pathway
1. a second messenger opens cation channels (Na+ and Ca+2)
2. depolarization of olfactory receptor cells occurs
3. odorant binds to olfactory receptor protein
4. G protein activates cyclic adenosine monophosphate
3 4 1 2
Which is not an event that occurs during the process of gustation?
the site of taste transduction occurs at the basal cells
There is a white outer covering of the eye known as the
There are two structures of the eye which help to focus light on the retina. They are the
cornea and lens
The aqueous humor
nourishes the cornea and lens
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