In contrast, the crucial assumption of liberalism is that each state will make decisions and act in the international system based on its own mix of principles, and these might encourage cooperation. From the perspective of liberalism, and its variations termed neoliberalism, states can have multiple goals, and aggressive, power-maximizing behavior is not inevitable. While every state wants to survive, states might also take actions in the politics across borders that support other values such as economic prosperity, political stability, peace, or the spread of democracy. Liberalism also diverges from realism in emphasizing that key groups within the state can influence the array of preferences that lead to action in the international system Globalization can be viewed as the increasing integration of diverse economic, social, cultural, military, and environmental phenomena by means of dense networks of action and information that rapidly span vast distances around the world. Higher productivity, higher-quality goods, and lower prices will generally "raise all boats." That is, these improvements will raise the level of material living standards and the prosperity enjoyed by large numbers of people in many countries. Globalization results in greater sharing and homogenization of culture and values across borders, creating a world with more shared understandings. Globalization encourages production, capital, and jobs to move wherever costs are lowest and profits are highest, resulting in considerable economic instability from country to country and hardship for many workers whose jobs are outsourced. The distribution of wealth grows even more unequal between core countries in the Global North and most countries in the Global South. Overpopulation, Corruption and inefficiency, geopolitical vulnerability, internal disorder, neocolonialism.
With neoliberalism, the state plays a very limited role in owning, controlling, or regulating economic resources; it supports globalized free trade; it facilitates foreign direct investment; and it holds down taxes and public spending to keep more money in the hands of private entrepreneurs. Import substitution—a country decreases the share of goods that are imported by producing more of those goods domestically. The government can exhort its citizens to buy domestically produced goods. Export promotion—firms are encouraged to produce goods and services that can be exported and sold at a profit in the global economy. The government can implement policies that provide its domestic firms with an advantage over global competitors. The effect of such policies could be lower taxes on domestic firms, a well- trained labor force, less restrictive environmental policies, subsidized materials, less costly regulations on business practices, and so on.