Terms in this set (83)

A hierarchical and unified Communist bloc existed under the leadership of the Soviet Union that was accurately perceived by Western decision makers.
Soviet expansion into Asia was not in response to Western threats due to security dilemmas, but because of the lack of a unified Western containment policy.
"Traditionalists portray the Soviet Union as an expansionist, ideologically driven power and the West as primarily reactive; revisionists argue that the Soviets were reactive, and the United States expansionist; post-revisionists, while assigning some responsibility for the Cold War to Soviet expansionist pressures, often place equal or greater blame on the United States; realists portray the Soviets as highly reactive because of the security dilemma, and therefore generally defensive and cautious."
On balance, the circumstantial evidence suggests that Western officials' perceptions of the Soviet bloc and traditional analyses of the Soviet threat were more correct than those of many subsequent critics. A relatively high degree of Soviet control over bloc members' policies, especially relations with other bloc nations and other international policies, but also often a Stalinist-inspired orthodoxy internally, was a consistent reality for most members in the early years of the Cold War.
Refutes realism and identifies a traditionalist explanation for the cold war, that the Soviets were driven by ideological needs and expanding to other nations in various ways, even supporting other Communist nations like China, and the West was in part reacting to this ideological drive. This article critiques other schools of thought for their explanations, particularly realism for focusing too heavily on power and ignoring ideological factors.
Three assumptions tend to govern how we think of terrorist organizations- terrorists have consistant and stable political goals, terrorists evaluate their political options, and terrorism offers a superior political concern. There are seven problems with that:Coercive ineffectiveness - Organizations rarely if ever attain their policy demands by targeting civilians and the political consequences of violence are almost always negative.
Terrorism as the first resort - Terrorism is usally not a last-resort and terrorists never lack political alternatives. Terrorists tend to target societies with the greatest number of political freedoms.
Reflexively uncompromising terrorists - No peace process has transformed a major terrorist organization into a completely nonviolent party. Terrorist organizations rarely commit to negotiations. Bargaining theory dictates that terrorists should compromise even if it means only getting a part of what they wanted, but they rarely do.
Protean political platforms - the policies and wants of the organizations change frequently depending on the issues, and they can be unstable and contradictory.
Anonymous Attacks - terrorist organizations do not always take credit for their attacks.
Terrorist Fratricide - Terrorist organizations with the same political platform attempt to destroy each other.
Never-ending terrorism - Terrorist organizations after decades continue to terrorize even when it is evident that their strategies are not working.

The "strategic model" accounts for the 7 flaws above - Terrorist organizations attempt to achieve social solidarity, as evidenced by people being attracted to organizations to develop ties as opposed to achieving political platforms and that groups engage in actions to preserve the social unit even when it impedes a political agenda.
Statehood is defined in one of two ways, empirically (Weber, a corporate group that has compulsory jurisdiction, exercises continuous organization, and claims a monopoly of force over a territory and its population, including all the action taking place in the area of its jurisdiction. Definition of means not an ends. pplying the definition to African states:
Not stable communities
Governments exercise control in 3 ways:
domestic authority - frequent military coups indicates institutional weakness and disaffection of elites
apparatus of power - underdeveloped resources and resource deployment mechanisms, bureaucratic corruption
economic circumstances - small size of skilled workforce, dependent on few primary exports.) or judicially (Brownlie, a legal person, recognized by international law, with the following attributes: 1) a defined territory, 2) a permanent population, 3) an effective government, and 4) independence, or the right to enter into relations with other states, Applying the definition to African states:
During the process of decolonizing Africa, many states with weak empirical qualifications for statehood became formally recognized states internationally
States could not reorganize the broders they inherited from colonialism or redetermine them after receiving international recognition). Juridical statehood is more important than empirical statehood in accounting for the persistence of states in "Black Africa"
International organizations have served as "post-imperial ordering devices" for new African states by recognizing them, but also freezing them within their arbitrarily defined colonial borders and blocking any post-independence movements towards self-determination
International support of empirical state building is limited in its ability to foster state growth and prone to supporting corrupt states.
Typically, support takes the form of the transfer of goods, services, technology, or skills to another state, but since the international system cannot tell a state how to precisely use these resources without violating that state's sovereignty, this form of support can support states with weak bureaucratic systems and corrupt governments.
After cold war, US and allies built order to wage security competition with rival bounded order dominated by Soveit Union
Problems with attempt of US and allies in creating liberal international order
required liberal states, esp US, to pursue highly revisionst and ambitious policy of regime change in era of nationalism with its emphasis on sovereignty and self-determination
By pushing for free movement of people across borders and delegation of substantial decision making authority to international institutions, expanding liberal order caused significant political problems inside liberal states
While some people and countries benefited from hyperglobalization, it ultimately caused major economic and political problems inside liberal democracies. And allowed china and russia to become great powers
In emerging multipolar world, likely to be realist international order concerned w/ managing world economy and fostering and maintaining arms control agreements -- need to facilitate interstate cooperation. Chinese and us rivalry will have economic and military dimensions.
US should stop trying to forcefully spread democracy and should maximize its influence in economic institutions and create formidable bounded order that can continue chinese expansion -- create economic institutions.

Liberal world order in trouble
b/c states in the modern world are deeply connected in a variety of ways, orders are essential for facilitating efficient and timely interactions
Type of international order depends on global distribution of power
Liberal international orders can only arise in unipolar systems where the leading state is a liberal democracy
US has led two different orders since WW2: cold war order or "liberal international order" that was neither liberal nor international, bounded to the west.
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